EPPO Global Database

Malus domestica(MABSD)

Pests

Organism Type
Chrysobothris femorata (as Malus) (CHRBFE) Doubtful host
* Paiero SM, Jackson MD, Jewiss-Gaines A, Kimoto T, Gill BD, Marshall SA (2012) Field guide to the jewel beetles of northeastern North America. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

* MacRae TC (1991) The Buprestidae (Coleoptera) of Missouri. Insecta Mundi, 5(2), 101–126. 
------- it may refer to other species of the femorata complex as it pre-dates Wellso & Manley, 2007.
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (ARGPLE) Doubtful host
* Pringle KL, Heunis JM (2015) De Villiers M (Phytosanitary host status of apples as a host for false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). African Entomology 23( 1).
------- Blomefield (1989) and Newton (1998) are cited in publication mentionning apples or pear as host. However, these last two authors did not actually mention apples or pears as hosts for T. leucotreta. 
Publications by Timm 2005; Timm et al. 2007; Timm et al. 2010 refers to traps in orchards, no finding in fruits.
Agrilus mali (AGRLMA) Host
* Jendek E, Poláková J (2014) Host plants of world Agrilus (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). A critical review. Springer International Publishing, 706 pp.

* Volkovitsh MG, Kovalev AV, Orlova-Bienkowskaja MJ (2020) Current distribution and diagnostic features of two potentially invasive Asian buprestid species: Agrilus mali Matsumura and A. fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Insects 11(8), 493. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080493
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (as Malus) (AGRBTU) Host
Alternaria mali (as Malus) (ALTEMA) Host
Anarsia lineatella (as Malus) (ANARLI) Host
Anastrepha ludens (ANSTLU) Host
* Baker AC, Stone WE, Plummer CC, McPhail M (1944) A review of studies on the Mexican fruitfly and related Mexican species. USDA Miscellaneous Publications, 155 pp.

* Eskafi FM, Cunningham RT (1987) Host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 70, 116-123.
Anastrepha serpentina (ANSTSE) Host
Anastrepha suspensa (ANSTSU) Host
* Swanson RW, Baranowski RM (1972) Host range and infestation by the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae), in south Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 271-273.
Anoplophora chinensis (ANOLCN) Host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.

* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Anoplophora glabripennis (ANOLGL) Host
* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.

* van der Gaag DJ, Loomans AJM (2014) Host plants of Anoplophora glabripennis, a review. EPPO Bulletin 44(3), 518-528.
------- Confirmed host: one record of 2 exit holes in China. Cage study in Austria.
Anoplophora glabripennis (as Malus) (ANOLGL) Host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.

* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Anthonomus pomorum (as Malus) (ANTHPO) Host
Anthonomus quadrigibbus (as Malus) (TACYQU) Host
Aphis citricidus (TOXOCI) Host
* Michaud JP (1998) A review of the literature on Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Florida Entomologist 81(1), 37-61.

* Singh G, Singh R (2017) Food plant records of Aphidini (Aphidinae: Aphididae: Hemiptera) in India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(2), 1280-1302.
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV0) Host
Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV00) Host
Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV00) Host
Apriona germari (as Malus) (APRIGE) Host
Apriona rugicollis (as Malus) (APRIJA) Host
Bactrocera dorsalis (DACUDO) Host
* Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jinapin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(7), 1-92.
Bactrocera zonata (DACUZO) Host
* Duyck PF, David P, Pavoine S, Quilici S (2008) Can host-range allow niche differentiation of invasive polyphagous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in La Réunion? Ecological Entomology 33(4), 439-452.

* White IM, Elson-Harris MM (1992) Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. CABI Wallingford (GB), 601 pp.
Botryosphaeria kuwatsukai (as Malus) (PHYOPI) Host
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (TORTPR) Host
Cacopsylla melanoneura (PSYLME) Host
'Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus' (LIBEEU) Host
'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (as Malus) (PHYPMA) Host
'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni' (PHYPPN) Host
'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (PHYPSO) Host
* Križanac I, Mikec I, Budinščak Ž, Šeruga Musić M, Škorić D (2010) Diversity of phytoplasmas infecting fruit trees and their vectors in Croatia. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117 (5), 206–213.

* Quaglino F, Zhao Y, Casati P, Bulgari D, Bianco PA, Wei W, Davis RE (2013) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63, 2879-2894.
Carposina sasakii (as Malus) (CARSSA) Host
Ceratitis capitata (CERTCA) Host
* Duyck P-F, David P, Pavoine S, Quilici S (2008) Can host-range allow niche differentiation of invasive polyphagous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in La Réunion? Ecological Entomology 33(4), 439-452.

* De Meyer M., Copeland RS, Lux SA, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White IM, Zenz NJ (2002) Annotated check list of host plants for Afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Zoologische Documentatie Koninklijk Museum voor Midden Afrika 27, 1-91.

* Eskafi FM, Cunningham RT (1987) Host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 70(1), 116-123,
Ceratitis malgassa (CERTMA) Host
* Rasolofoarivao H, Raveloson Ravaomanarivo LH, Delatte H (2021) Host plant ranges of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Madagascar. Bulletin of Entomological Research 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007485321000511
Ceratitis quilicii (CERTQI) Host
* De Meyer M, Mwatawala M, Copeland RS, Virgilio M (2016) Description of new Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Africa, or how morphological and DNA data are complementary in discovering unknown species and matching sexes. European Journal of Taxonomy 233, 1-23. 
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis rosa (CERTRO) Host
Ceratitis rosa (as Malus) (CERTRO) Host
Ceroplastes ceriferus (CERPCE) Host
Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV00) Host
Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV00) Host
* Hansen AJ; Parish CL (1990) Transmissible fruit disorders. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS (eds.) Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 77-78.

* Parish CL (1976) A comparison between the causal agents of cherry rasp leaf and flat apple diseases. Acta Horticulturae 67, 199-202.

* Parish CL (1977) A relationship between flat apple disease and cherry rasp leaf disease. Phytopathology 67(8), 982-984
Chrysobothris femorata (CHRBFE) Host
* Brooks FE (1919) The flat-headed apple-tree borer. Farmers' bulletin (United States. Dept. of Agriculture) 1065. 15pp. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1919 
------ confirmed host

* Eaton AT (2011) Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees. Retrieved from https://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource001830_Rep2590.pdf
Chrysobothris mali (CHRBMA) Host
* Acheampong S, Zilahi- GMG, Foottit RG & Judd GJR (2017) Pacific Flatheaded Borer, Chrysobothris mali Horn (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), found attacking apple saplings in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 113, 71–73

* Burke HE (1929) The Pacific Flathead Borer. Technical Bulletin - United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., (83).
Chrysomphalus aonidum (CHRYFI) Host
Colletotrichum acutatum (COLLAC) Host
Comstockaspis perniciosa (as Malus) (QUADPE) Host
Conotrachelus nenuphar (CONHNE) Host
* Brown MW (2005) Host utilization and phenology of injury by plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in West Virginia. Journal of Entomological Science 40(2), 149–157.

* Chapman PJ (1938) The plum curculio as an apple pest. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 684, 75 pp.

* Leskey TC, Wright SE (2007) Host preference of the plum curculio. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 123(3), 217-227.

* Maier CT (1990) Native and exotic rosaceous hosts of apple, plum and quince curculio larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the northeastern United States. Environmental Entomology 83(4), 1326–1332.

* Williams MA, Strang JG, Bessin RT, Law D, Scott D, Wilson N, Witt S, Archbold DD (2015) An assessment of organic apple production in Kentucky. HortTechnology 25(2), 154-161.
Cytospora ceratosperma (VALSCE) Host
Cytospora mali (VALSMA) Host
Diabrotica speciosa (DIABSC) Host
Diplocarpon coronariae (as Malus) (DIPCML) Host
Drosophila suzukii (DROSSU) Host
* Kanzawa T (1935) Research into the fruit-fly Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Preliminary Report). Yamanashi Prefecture Agricultural Experiment Station Report. Japan.

* Kanzawa T (1939) Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats. Kofu, Yanamashi Agricultural Experimental Station, Japan.

* Walsh DB, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Dreves AJ, Lee J, Bruck DJ, Walton VM, O’Neil SD, Zalon FG (2011) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera; Drosophilidae): invasive pest of ripening soft fruit expanding its geographic range and damage potential. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 2(1), G1-G7
Eotetranychus lewisi (EOTELE) Host
* Citalan Estrada R (1998) Evaluacion de la efectividad biologica de formetanato para el control del acaro Eotetranychus lewisi McGregor en el cultivo del manzano en la region de Canatlan, Durango. Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN), Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico: 81 pp.
Erthesina fullo (ERTNFU) Host
* Mi Q, Zhang J, Gould E, Chen J, Sun Z, Zhang F (2020) Biology, ecology, and management of Erthesina fullo (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): A review. Insects 11, 346. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060346
Erwinia amylovora (as Malus) (ERWIAM) Host
* Van der Zwet, Keil HL (1979) Fire blight: a bacterial disease of rosaceous Plants. USDA Handbook no. 510. USDA, Washington (US), 200 pp.

* Zeller W (1977) Studies on fire blight in the German Federal Republic. 2. Susceptibility of woody ornamentals to Erwinia amylovora. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 29(1 ), p 1-10."
Eutetranychus orientalis (EUTEOR) Host
* Marić I, Međo I, Marčić D, Petanović R, Jovanović S, Ueckermann EA (2021) Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from Serbia: new species for the country and the Balkan Peninsula, with a key to all known Serbian species. Systematic & Applied Acarology 26(1): 304–316.
Grapholita funebrana (LASPFU) Host
Grapholita inopinata (CYDIIN) Host
* Gibanov PK, Sanin YV (1971) [Lepidoptera – pests of fruits in Primorye.] Zashchita Rastenij 8, 41-43. (in Russian)
------- confirmed host.

* Lopatina VV (1978) [Manchurian apple fruit moth in Chita region.] Zashchita Rastenij 4, 47-48. (in Russian)
------- confirmed host.
Grapholita inopinata (as Malus) (CYDIIN) Host
Grapholita molesta (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita molesta (as Malus) (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita packardi (LASPPA) Host
Grapholita packardi (as Malus) (LASPPA) Host
Grapholita prunivora (as Malus) (LASPPR) Host
Gymnosporangium clavipes (GYMNCL) Host
Gymnosporangium clavipes (as Malus) (GYMNCL) Host
Gymnosporangium globosum (GYMNGL) Host
Gymnosporangium globosum (as Malus) (GYMNGL) Host
Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (as Malus) (GYMNJV) Host
Gymnosporangium yamadae (as Malus) (GYMNYA) Host
Halyomorpha halys (HALYHA) Host
* Nielsen AL, Hamilton GC (2009) Life history of the invasive species Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northeastern United States. Annals of Entomological Society of America 102(4), 608-616.
Hyphantria cunea (as Malus) (HYPHCU) Host
Lepidosaphes ussuriensis (as Malus) (LEPSUS) Host
Lopholeucaspis japonica (LOPLJA) Host
*  Suh SJ (2020) Host plant list of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) in South Korea. Insecta Mundi 0757: 1–26
------- as Malus pumila
Lycorma delicatula (LYCMDE) Host
* Barringer L, Ciafré CM (2020) Worldwide feeding host plants of spotted lanternfly, with significant additions from North America. Environmental Entomology 49(5), 999–1011.
Lymantria dispar (LYMADI) Host
Lymantria mathura (LYMAMA) Host
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (PHENHI) Host
* Matile-Ferrero D (1984) Insects of Saudi Arabia Homoptera: Subordo Coccoidea. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 6, 219-228.
Malacosoma americanum (MALAAM) Host
Malacosoma americanum (as Malus) (MALAAM) Host
Malacosoma disstria (as Malus) (MALADI) Host
Malacosoma parallela (as Malus) (MALAPA) Host
Megaplatypus mutatus (PLTPMU) Host
* INTERNET
Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de plagas. Megaplatypus mutatus. https://www.sinavimo.gov.ar/plaga/megaplatypus-mutatus
Megaplatypus mutatus (as Malus) (PLTPMU) Host
* Allegro G, Griffo R (2008) I rischi di diffusione di Megaplatypus mutatus. L'informatore Agrario no. 13, 73-76.
Monilinia fructicola (MONIFC) Host
* Pereira WV, May-De-Mio LL (2018) First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on apple in Brazil. Plant Disease 102(12), p 2657.
------- In Parana state, Brazil.
Monilinia fructicola (as Malus) (MONIFC) Host
Monilinia polystroma (as Malus) (MONIPO) Host
Naupactus leucoloma (GRAGLE) Host
* Chadwick CF (1965) Checklist of the Brachyderinae (Col. Curculionidae) occurring in Australia. Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (NSW) 2, 21-34.
Naupactus xanthographus (NAUPXA) Host
* González (1989) Insectos y acaros de importancia agricola y cuarentenaria en Chile. Universidad de Chile: 310 pp
------- confirmed host (as manzano)

* Lanteri A, del Río MG (2017) Naupactus xanthographus (Germar) species group (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Naupactini): a comprehensive taxonomic treatment. Journal of Natural History 51, 27-28.

* Sinavimo (2019) Naupactus xanthographus Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de plagas. Available at: https://www.sinavimo.gov.ar/plaga/naupactus-xanthographus
------- causing damage on buds, leaves, roots.
Neofabraea malicorticis (PEZIMA) Host
Oemona hirta (OEMOHI) Host
* ClearwaterJ JR (1981) Lemon tree borer, Oemona hirta (Fabricius), life cycle. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Information Series no. 105(33), 1-3.
------- As apple.
Phyllosticta solitaria (as Malus) (PHYSSL) Host
Phytophthora cactorum (PHYTCC) Host
Phytophthora cryptogea (PHYTCR) Host
Pochazia shantungensis (POCZSH) Host
* Kim DE, Lee H, Kim MJ, Lee DH (2015) Predicting the potential habitat, host plants, and geographical distribution of Pochazia shantungensis (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae) in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 54, 179–189.
Prodiplosis longifila (PRDILO) Host
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV0) Host
* Çelik A, Ertunç F (2019) First report of prunus necrotic ringspot virus infecting apple in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology 101, p 1227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-019-00286-7
------- In Bursa province, Turkey.
Pseudococcus calceolariae (PSECGA) Host
Pseudococcus comstocki (PSECCO) Host
Pseudococcus comstocki (as Malus) (PSECCO) Host
Ricania speculum (RICASC) Host
Spodoptera frugiperda (LAPHFR) Host
* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez DR, Roque-Specht VF, Sousa-Silva JC, Paula-Moraes SV, Peterson JA, Hunt T (2018) Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology 26, 286-300.
------- As Malus pumila.
Spodoptera praefica (PRODPR) Host
* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW & Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A database of the World's lepidopteran hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts
Tetranychus mexicanus (TETRME) Host
* Flechtmann CHW (1967) Contribution to knowledge of the mites of plants of some regions of the State of Sao Paulo (as a systematic survey including new species). Piracicaba, Brasil: 47.
Thrips hawaiiensis (THRIHA) Host
Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV00) Host
Tomato ringspot virus (as Malus) (TORSV0) Host
Trichodorus viruliferus (TRIHVI) Host
Trirachys sartus (as Malus) (AELSSA) Host
* Gaffar SA, Bhat AA (1991) Management of stem borer, Aeolesthes sarta (Solsky), infesting walnut trees in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Forestry 14, 138- 141.
Xylotrechus chinensis (XYLOCH) Host
* Han Y, Lee D (2010) Taxonomic review of the genus Xylotrechus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) in Korea with a newly recorded species. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 49(2), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.2.069
-------- As Malus pumila.
Xylotrechus namanganensis (as Malus) (XYLONM) Host
Adoxophyes orana (CAPURE) Major host
Alternaria mali (ALTEMA) Major host
Anastrepha fraterculus (ANSTFR) Major host
* Campos RF (1960) Las moscas (Brachycera) del Ecuador. Revista Ecuatoriana Higiene y Medicina Tropical 17, 1–66.

* Caraballo CJ (1981) Las moscas de frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. MSc Dissertation, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, 210 p.

* Kovaleski A, Uramoto K, Sugayama RL, Canal NA, Malavasi A (1999) A survey of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera, Tephritidae) species in the apple growing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 43, 229–234.

* Malavasi A, Morgante JS, Zucchi RA (1980) Biologia de “moscas-das-frutas” (Diptera, Tephritidae). I: lista de hospedeiros e ocorrência. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 40, 9–16.

* Raga A, Souza-Filho MFD, Machado RA, Sato ME, Siloto RC (2011) Host ranges and infestation indices of fruit flies (Tephritidae) and lance flies (Lonchaeidae) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Florida Entomologist 94, 787–794.

* Wille TJE (1952) Entomología Agrícola del Perú. Dirección General de Agricultura, Lima, 543 pp.
Anoplophora chinensis (as Malus) (ANOLCN) Major host
* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Anthonomus pomorum (ANTHPO) Major host
Anthonomus quadrigibbus (TACYQU) Major host
Apple chat fruit agent (APCF00) Major host
Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVD0) Major host
* Ito T, Kanematsu S, Koganezawa H, Tsuchizaki T, Yoshida K (1993) Detection of a viroid associated with apple fruit crinkle disease. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 59, 520-527.

* Ito T, Koshida K (1998) Reproduction of Apple fruit crinkle disease symptoms by Apple fruit crinkle viroid. Acta Horticulturae 472, 587-594.

* Koganezawa H, Ito T (2010) Apple fruit crinkle viroid. In: Hadidi A, Barba M, Candresse T, Jelkmann W (eds) Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits. APS Press, pp 53-55.
Apple green crinkle agent (APGC00) Major host
Apple hammerhead viroid (AHVD00) Major host
* Szostek SA, Wright AA, Harper SJ (2018) First report of apple hammerhead viroid in the United States, Japan, Italy, Spain, and New Zealand. Plant Disease 102(12), 2670.
------- confirmed host.
Apple mosaic virus (APMV00) Major host
Apple necrotic mosaic virus (APNMV0) Major host
* Cho IS, Kwon SJ, Yoon JY, Chung BN, Hammond J, Lim HS (2017) First report of apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea. Journal of Plant Pathology 99, 815–815.

* Nabi SU, Baranwal VK, Yadav MK, Rao GP (2020) Association of Apple necrotic mosaic virus (ApNMV) with mosaic disease in commercially grown cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh) in India. 3 Biotech 10, 122.

* Shi W, Yao R, Sunwu R, Huang K, Liu Z, Li X, Yang Y, Wang J (2020) Incidence and molecular identification of apple necrotic mosaic virus (ApNMV) in Southwest China. Plants 9(4), 415. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9040415

* Xing F, Robe BL, Zhang ZX, Wang HQ, Li SF (2018) Genomic analysis, sequence diversity, and occurrence of apple necrotic mosaic virus, a novel ilarvirus associated with mosaic disease of apple trees in China. Plant Disease 102(9), 1841–1847.
Apple ringspot agent (APRS00) Major host
Apple rough skin agent (APRSK0) Major host
Apple rubbery wood agent (ARW000) Major host
* Hu G, Dong Y, Zhang Z, Fan X, Ren F, Lu X (2021) First report of apple rubbery wood virus 2 in apple in China. Plant disease 105(2), 519.
Apriona cinerea (APRICI) Major host
* Bhagat RC (2017) Coleopteran-fauna (Insecta) infesting fruit plantations in Jammu & Kashmir state (India): An annotated checklist and biodiversity. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology 4(2), 60-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcrbp.2017.402.008
Apriona germari (APRIGE) Major host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Botryosphaeria kuwatsukai (PHYOPI) Major host
* Xu C, Wang CS, Ju LL, Zhang R, Biggs AR, Tanaka E, Li BZ, Sun GY (2015) Multiple locus genealogies and phenotypic characters reappraise the causal agent of apple ring rot in China. Fungal Diversity 71, 215-231.
------- Taxonomic description. Epitype from Shaanxi from apple (Malus domestica) fruit.
'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (PHYPMA) Major host
Carposina sasakii (CARSSA) Major host
Chondrostereum purpureum (as Malus) (STERPU) Major host
Choristoneura rosaceana (CHONRO) Major host
Colletotrichum fructicola (COLLFC) Major host
* Arzanlou M, Bakhshi M, Karimi K, Torbati M (2015) Multigene phylogeny reveals three new records of Colletotrichum spp. and several new host records for the mycobiota of Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55(2), p. 198-211.

* Huang F, Chen GQ, Hou X, FuYS, Cai L, Hyde KD, Li HY (2013) Colletotrichum species associated with cultivated citrus in China. Fungal Diversity 61, p. 61–74

* Nodet P, Chalopin M, Crété X, Baroncelli R, Le Floch G (2019) First report of Colletotrichum fructicola causing apple bitter rot in Europe. Plant Disease 103(7), 1767.
Comstockaspis perniciosa (QUADPE) Major host
Cydia pomonella (CARPPO) Major host
Diaporthe eres (DIAPER) Major host
Diplocarpon coronariae (DIPCML) Major host
Epiphyas postvittana (TORTPO) Major host
Erwinia amylovora (ERWIAM) Major host
* Bobev SG, Maes M, van Vaerenbergh J, Tahzima R (2010) Fire blight spread in Bulgaria and characteristics of the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Acta Horticulturae no. 896, 133-140.

* Giorgi S, Scortichini M (2005) Molecular characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants through RFLP analysis and sequencing of hrpN and dspA/E genes. Plant Pathology 54, 789-798.

* Taylor RK, Guilford PJ, Clark RG, Hale CN, Forster RLS (2001) Detection of Erwinia amylovora in plant material using novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 29, 35-43.

* Van der Zwet, Keil HL (1979) Fire blight: a bacterial disease of rosaceous Plants. USDA Handbook no. 510. USDA, Washington (US), 200 p.
Grapholita prunivora (LASPPR) Major host
Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (GYMNJV) Major host
Gymnosporangium yamadae (GYMNYA) Major host
Hyphantria cunea (HYPHCU) Major host
Leucoptera malifoliella (LEUCSC) Major host
Malacosoma parallela (MALAPA) Major host
Meloidogyne mali (MELGMA) Major host
* Itoh Y, Ohshima Y, Ichinohe M (1969) A root–knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali n. sp. on apple–tree from Japan (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 4: 194-202
------- Confirmed host (as Malus pumila).
Monilinia fructigena (MONIFG) Major host
Monilinia polystroma (MONIPO) Major host
* Petroczy M, Palkovics L (2009) First report of Monilia polystroma on apple in Hungary. European Journal of Plant Pathology 125(2), 343-347.

* Poniatowska A, Michalecka M, Pulawska J (2016) Genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Monilinia polystroma - the new pathogen of cherries. Plant Pathology 65(5), 726-733.

* Vasic M, Duduk N, Ivanovic MS (2013) First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia polystroma on apple in Serbia. Plant Disease 97(1), p 145.
Neofabraea vagabunda (as Malus) (PEZIAL) Major host
Neonectria ditissima (NECTGA) Major host
* Weber RW (2014) Biology and control of the apple canker fungus Neonectria ditissima (syn. N. galligena) from a Northwestern European perspective. Erwerbs-Obstbau 56(3), 95-107.
Neonectria ditissima (as Malus) (NECTGA) Major host
Operophtera brumata (CHEIBR) Major host
Orgyia leucostigma (HEMELE) Major host
* Ontario Apple IPM (2009) White marked tussock moth. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/IPM/english/apples/insects/whit
e-marked-tussock-moth.html#advanced 

 * Schowalter TD (2018) Biology and management of the whitemarked tussock moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae). Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 9(1):26, 1–8. 

* Webster RL (1916) The white-marked tussock-moth. Circular. Paper 33. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iaes_circulars/39
Orgyia leucostigma (as Malus) (HEMELE) Major host
* Van Driesche RG, LaForest JH, Bargeron CT, Reardon RC, Herlihy M (2012) Forest Pest Insects in North America: a Photographic Guide. USDA Forest Service. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV. FHTET-2012-02.
Phlyctinus callosus (PHLYCA) Major host
* Barnes BN, Pringle KL (1989) Oviposition by the banded fruit weevil, Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in deciduous fruit orchards in South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research 79, 31-40
Phyllosticta solitaria (PHYSSL) Major host
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Major host
* Watson TW, Appel DN, Arnold MA, Starr JL, Kenerley CM (2004) Seasonal influence on infection rates of Malus sylvestris var. domestica roots by Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. HorScience 39(4), p 747.
Platynota stultana (PLAAST) Major host
Popillia japonica (POPIJA) Major host
* Fleming WE (1972) Biology of the Japanese beetle. Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, USDA no 1449, 129 pp.
Rhagoletis pomonella (RHAGPO) Major host
* Benjamin FH (1934)  Descriptions of some native trypetid flies with notes on their habits.  United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 401, 95 pp.

* Wasbauer MS (1972) An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of America north of Mexico (Diptera: Tephritidae).  Occasional papers, California Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology 19, 172 pp. 
-------Confirmed host (as Malus pumila).

* Yee WL, Norrbom AL (2017) Provisional List of Suitable Host Plants of the Apple Maggot Fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0, 20pp, in USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI)
Edition 2.0; https://coffhi.cphst.org/. 
------- Confirmed host.
Rhizobium rhizogenes (AGRBRH) Major host
Saperda candida (SAPECN) Major host
* Hess AD (1940) The biology and control of the round-headed apple-tree borer, Saperda candida Fabricius. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 688, 93 pp.
Spodoptera littoralis (SPODLI) Major host
* Gutbrodt B, Mody K, Wittwer R, Dorn S (2011) Within-plant distribution of induced resistance in apple seedlings: rapid acropetal and delayed basipetal responses. Planta 233(6), 1199-1207.
Thrips imaginis (THRIIM) Major host
Trichoferus campestris (HESOCA) Major host
* CAPS (2019) Trichoferus campestris. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey pest datasheets. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3869
------- Living host.

* Lim J, Jung SY, Lim JS, Jang J, Kim KM, Lee YM, Lee BW (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53, 111-133.
------- Living host.

*  Zhang Y-R, Wang R. Yu Y, Luo Y-Q (2017) [Damage and population dynamics of wood-boring cerambycid beetles in Rosaceous fruit trees] Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology 54(3), 500-505 (in Chinese).
Trichoferus campestris (as Malus) (HESOCA) Major host
* CAPS (2019) Trichoferus campestris. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey pest datasheets. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3869
------- Preferred living host.

* Iwata R & Yamada F (1990) Notes on the biology of Hesperophanes campestris, a drywood borer in Japan. Material und Organismen 25, 305–313.
Trirachys sartus (AELSSA) Major host
* Ahmad MI, Hafiz IA, Chaudhry MI (1977) Biological studies of Aeolesthes sarta Solksy attacking poplars in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 27, 123-129. 

* Bhagat RC (2017) Coleopteran-fauna (Insecta) infesting fruit plantations in Jammu & Kashmir state (India): An annotated checklist and biodiversity. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology 4(2), 60-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcrbp.2017.402.008 
Xylosandrus crassiusculus (XYLBCR) Major host
Xylotrechus namanganensis (XYLONM) Major host