EPPO Global Database

Xanthomonas citri pv. citri(XANTCI)

Distribution details in United States of America

Situation
Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2017: Present, restricted distribution
First recorded in: 1995
Pest status declared by NPPO: Present, only in some areas in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas and subject to official control (2017-04)
From CABI Disease map 011 (2006): Present, no details
Comments
From 1912 to 1994 - Introduced into Florida in 1912, probably on Poncirus trifoliata from Japan, and spread to Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina and Texas (where it was then eradicated). Eradicated in Florida by 1933 and from all USA by 1947. The A strain was detected again in Florida in 1986, in residential areas (Hillsborough, Pinellas, Sarasota, Manatee counties) and in commercial citrus groves (2 in Manatee county and 1 in Highlands country). An active disease eradication program was conducted in Florida to eliminate the disease and preclude establishment and dissemination of the pathogen. Eradication was declared successful in 1994. The related pathovar X. c. pv. citrumelo, previously known as the E or nursery strain, occurs in Florida.

EPPO Reporting Service (95/228): in 1995-09, the disease was again found in a small area near Miami airport.

EPPO Reporting Service (97/129): by mid-1997, the infested area had increased from 33 to 320 km2, despite all efforts (predominantly northwards from Dade into Broward county, remaining in urban areas). The pathogen was different from archived isolates from the 1986/1992 outbreak. Oldest stem lesions suggest that pathogen was present 2-3 years before first finding. Spread probably connected with incidence of tropical storms. Damage by the newly introduced Phyllocnistis citrella may also have facilitated infection.

In 1997-05, new outbreak in commercial and residential citrus in Manatee country. Close relationship with isolates from 1986/1992 outbreak. In 1998-06, further outbreak in commercial grapefruit orchard near Immokalee (Collier county), at moderate levels. Affected orchard and surrounding trees destroyed. Still spreading in 1999, according to EPPO Reporting Service (99/182)

EPPO Reporting Service (2001/012) : present in 7 counties (Browad, Dade, Palm Beach, Manatee, Hillsborough, Collier and Hendry). Active eradication.

EPPO Reporting Service (2001/075) : refers to the letter of Gottwald et al. to the Editor of Phytopathology on scientific and practical aspects of the eradication programme in Florida.

EPPO Reporting Service (2006/123) : eradication programme in Florida declared no longer feasible. Measures are being developed to contain the disease within Florida and to prevent its spread to other states

EPPO Reporting Service (2013/171) : detected in Louisiana

detected in Texas.
References
* APPPC (1986) Quarterly Newsletter, Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission 29 (3), 37-38.
------- Recent information on the distribution in the USA is given.

* NAPPO Phytosanitary Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports.
- USA (2017-04-31) Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas spp.) - APHIS Adds portions of Harris, Fort Bend, and Cameron Counties in Texas to the domestic citrus canker quarantine. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=707
- USA (2016-07-15) Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas spp.) - APHIS establishes a quarantine in portions of Cameron County, Texas. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=672
- USA (2014-02-14) Citrus Canker (Xanthomonas spp.) quarantine established in Louisiana. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=576
- USA (2013-07-01) Detection of citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri) in Louisiana. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=550

* Schoulties, C.L.; Miller, J.W. (1985) A new outbreak of citrus canker in Florida. Plant Disease 69(4), 361.

* Sinclair, J.B. (1968) Eradication of citrus canker from Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter 52 (9), 667-670.
Situation in neighbouring countries
Country State Status
Mexico Transient, under eradication view...