New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In the Republic of Korea, Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae) was found for the first time in August 2005 in a persimmon (Diospyros kaki) orchard in Hanrim county (Gyeongnam province). The pest was then found on other hosts and locations. This is also the first record of M. pruinosa for Asia (Lee and Wilson, 2010). Present, first found in 2005 in Gyeongnam province.
The giant black aphid, Pterochloroides persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) has been recently found in France. In 2016, it was observed on peach (Prunus persicae) trees in the municipality of Bellegarde (Gard department). It is noted that its presence had also been recorded in 2006 and 2014 in the Pyrénées-Orientales department. P. persicae originates from China but has spread to other parts of the world such as India, Pakistan, the Middle East and the Mediterranean Basin. Its preferred host is peach but it can also be found on other fruit trees (e.g. Citrus, Cydonia oblonga, Malus domestica, Prunus spp., Pyrus communis). In the Western part of the Mediterranean Basin, it has been recorded in Italy (1977), Tunisia (1984), Spain (1994), France (2006) and Algeria (2008) (Anses, 2016; Laamari, 2015). Present, Southern France.
In Mozambique, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae – EPPO A2 List) was first trapped in 2016 in the Manica province, in the central part of the country. Later surveys detected the pest in the Northern part of Mozambique (Cabo Degado and Niassa provinces), then in the Central part (Manica, Tete and Sofala provinces) and finally in the Southern part of the country (Maputo and Gaza provinces). The pest status of Tuta absoluta in Mozambique is officially declared as: Present: in all parts of the area where host crop(s) are grown (IPPC, 2017).
- Detailed records
In Switzerland, Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in Ticino in 2004 and remained limited to this canton until 2015. In autumn 2015, the disease was found for the first time in the canton of Vaud in two localities (Blonay and Tour-de-Peilz). Phytosanitary measures have been taken to prevent any further spread of the disease (Confédération Suisse, 2016).
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri – EPPO A1 List) has been found in Texas (US). The bacterium was detected in several citrus trees (Citrus aurantifolia, C. hystrix, and C. limon x medica) in private gardens in Rancho Viejo (Cameron county). Phytosanitary measures are being implemented (NAPPO, 2016).
In France, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae - EPPO Alert List) was first found in August 2014 in the municipality of Nice (Alpes-Maritimes department) on 4 carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua). Despite eradication measures, surveys using traps conducted in 2015 detected the pest on 200 trees at the same location and on the island of Sainte Marguerite (also in Alpes-Maritimes). Eradication is no longer considered feasible (Anonymous, 2015).
In Spain, Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae – Asian hornet) was first found in 2010 in Navarra (EPPO RS 2015/075). This invasive species was then found in other parts of the country: País Vasco, Cataluña, Cantabria, Asturias, La Rioja, Illas Baleares (Mallorca), Castilla y León and Galicia (Xunta de Galicia, 2016).
- Denied record
In 2014, a paper (Demir et al., 2014) mentioned the possible presence of Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae – EPPO A1 List) in Turkey. This record was queried by the Turkish NPPO which undertook further studies on the identity of the pest found. Results of the diagnosis confirmed that the pest was not M. americanum, but M. franconicum which is native to Turkey. The original paper has been corrected and republished (NPPO of Turkey, 2016).
In Ukraine, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 List) was first detected in 2007 in 1 greenhouse near Ivano-Frankivsk in the Western part of the country. The infestation was found on Hibiscus plants and covered approximately 0.7 ha. Most infested plants were destroyed and insecticide treatments were applied. In 2008, the pest was no longer found in this glasshouse. Since this first record, annual surveys have been conducted in Ukraine. In 2010, another outbreak was detected in 1 glasshouse producing curcurbits (Cucumis sp.) in the Striy district (K’viv oblast) and in 1 glasshouse producing ornamental tropical plants in Lviv city. In all cases, eradication measures were applied. As since 2014, no other findings have been made, the NPPO considers that the pest has been successfully eradicated (IPPC, 2016).
The pest status of Bemisia tabaci in Ukraine is officially declared as: Absent, pest was eradicated.
- New pests
Genetic studies have been conducted on a collection of 234 Calonectria isolates collected from Buxus plants showing symptoms of box blight. Previously, only one species, Calonectria pseudonaviculata (=Cylindrocladium buxicola – formerly EPPO Alert List) was known to be associated with the disease. Results of these genetic studies have shown that two distinct fungal species are involved with box blight: C. pseudonaviculata sensu stricto and a new species for which the name Calonectria henricotiae sp. nov. is proposed. Molecular tests (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR) have been developed to detect and identify these two species (Gehesquière et al., 2016).
A new phytophthora isolated from Amaranthus tricolor has been described in Taiwan and called Phytophthora amaranthi sp. nov. Affected plants showed water-soaked lesions on leaves, followed by wilting and plant collapse due to basal stem and root rot. In Taiwan, A. tricolor is an important vegetable crop which can be cultivated all year-round. This species can also be cultivated for ornamental purposes (Ann et al., 2016).
The fungus causing annular leaf spot of potato in South America and initially described as Septoria lycopersici var. malagutii (EPPO A1 List) is now considered to be a distinct species called Septoria malagutii sp. nov. (Cline & Rossman, 2006).
Ann PJ, Huang JH, Tsai JN, Ko WH (2015) Morphological, molecular and pathological characterization of Phytophthora amaranthi sp. nov. from amaranth in Taiwan. Journal of Phytopathology 164(2), 94-101.
Anses. Fiche de reconnaissance. Pterochloroides persicae (by V. Balmès – dated 2016-09-01). http://draaf.normandie.agriculture.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/BSV_Normandie_no09-2016_cle87e614.pdf
Cline TE, Rossman AY (2006) Septoria malagutii sp. nov., cause of annular leaf spot of potato. Mycotaxon 98, 125-135.
Demir I, Nalçacioğlu R, Mohammad Gholizad L, Demirbag Z (2014) A highly effective nucleopolyhedrovirus against Malacosoma spp. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) from Turkey: isolation, characterization, phylogeny, and virulence. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 38, 462-470. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agriculture/issues/tar-14-38-4/tar-38-4-5-1307-32.pdf
Gehesquière B, Crouch J, Marra R, Van Poucke K, Rys F, Maes M, Gobin B, Höfte M, Heungens K (2016) Characterization and taxonomic re-assessment of the box blight pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata, introducing Calonectria henricotiae sp. nov. Plant Pathology 65(1), 37-52.
- Confédération Suisse. Le Conseil fédéral (2016-06-02) Lutter contre la flavescence dorée, une maladie de quarantaine de la vigne apparue pour la première fois en Suisse romande en 2015. https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-61963.html
- Govern de les Illes Balears. La vespa asiatica. Vespa velutina. http://www.caib.es/govern/rest/arxiu/2488796
- IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Mozambique (MOZ-05/1 of 2017-01-13) Occurrence of tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) in Mozambique. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/mozambique/pestreports/2017/01/occurrence-of-tomato-leaf-miner-tuta-absoluta-in-mozambique/
- IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Ukraine (UKR-01/2 of 2016-09-05) Eradication of Bemisia tabaci Gen. outbreaks in Ukraine. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/ukraine/pestreports/2014/11/eradication-of-bemisia-tabaci-gen-outbreaks-in-ukraine/
- Xunta de Galicia. Protocolo de vixilancia e control fronte à avespa asiatica (Vespa velutina) 2016. http://mediorural.xunta.gal/fileadmin/arquivos/gandaria/apicultura/Protocolo_vixilancia_e_control_vespa_velutina_Galicia_Rev_2016.pdf
Laamari M, Cœur d'Acier Z, Jousselin R (2015) Première observation du puceron brun Pterochloroides persicae (Cholodkovsky) (Homoptera, Aphididae, Lachninae) sur pêcher en Algérie. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 45(1), 106-107.
Lee HS, Wilson SW (2010) First report of the Nearctic flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in the Republic of Korea (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Entomological News 121(5), 506-513.
NAPPO Phytosanitary Pest Alert System. Official Pest Reports. USA (2016-07-15) Citrus canker (Xanthomonas spp.) - APHIS establishes a quarantine in portions of Cameron county, Texas. http://www.pestalert.org/oprDetail.cfm?oprID=672
NPPO of Turkey (2016-06).