New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Brazil, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first observed in June 2017 in Mogi das Cruzes (São Paulo). In spring 2020, further specimens were found in several localities (Candiota, Esmeralda, Eldorado do Sul) in Rio Grande do Sul (van der Heyden and Faúndez, 2020).
In Côte d’Ivoire, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (EPPO A1 List) was detected for the first time during field surveys conducted in October 2018 in 15 sites, located between Korhogo (Northern Côte d’Ivoire) and Gagnoa (Southern Côte d’Ivoire). Symptoms of bacterial leaf streak of rice were observed in the area of Korhogo, and the identity of the bacterium was confirmed by molecular and pathogenicity tests. Further surveys will be conducted to assess the disease incidence and control strategies will be developed (Diallo et al., 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
In South Africa, two adult specimens of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) were first observed in April 2020 in Cape Town (van der Heyden and Faúndez, 2020).
- Detailed records
Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (EPPO A1 List) was reported in July 2021 in Alabama (US). The bacterium was detected in foliage and fruit samples collected during a routine survey of citrus trees in a residential area of Baldwin County. Delimiting surveys will be conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak (Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries, 2021).
In the United Kingdom, two new breeding populations of Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae - EU Annexes) have been discovered in two woodlands in Kent. The pest had first been found in Kent in 2018. Phytosanitary measures are being implemented to limit the spread of I. typographus and members of the public are invited to report any sightings (GOV.UK, 2021).
In France, Aleuroclava aucubae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was first recorded in 2013 on citrus trees in a private garden in Corsica (EPPO RS 2013/110). The NPPO of France considered that this outbreak is now eradicated (NPPO of France, 2021-07).
In France, Meloidogyne mali (EPPO A2 List) was first detected in 2016 on Ulmus chenmoui trees planted in an experimental plot located in Ile-de-France region, as well as on Rubus fruticosus plants growing in their immediate vicinity (EPPO RS 2017/043). Eradication measures were taken, and the outbreak is now considered eradicated (NPPO of France, 2021).
The pest status of Meloidogyne mali in France is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
In Spain ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ haplotype E had been recorded on potato in two warehouses belonging to family plots for self-consumption in December 2016 (EPPO RS 2017/134) and later in two other warehouses for direct marketing in the municipality of Valderredible, in the Autonomous Region of Cantabria. Eradication measures were taken. Recent surveys indicate that the pathogen is no longer present on potato in the area. It is considered eradicated in potato production (NPPO of Spain, 2021).
The pest status of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in Spain is officially declared as: Present: only in some parts of the Member State concerned on carrot and celery. Absent: pest found but eradicated on potato.
In Bulgaria, tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV – EPPO A2 List) was first detected in June 2021 (EPPO RS 2021/135). Infected plants were destroyed, and the machinery and equipment were disinfected (NPPO of Bulgaria, 2021).
The pest status of tomato brown rugose fruit virus in Bulgaria is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
- Host plants
In China (Hubei province), Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO A2 List) is reported to cause bacterial leaf spot disease on Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry), a deciduous tree native to northeastern Asia. Typical symptoms on leaves included small, angular, brown spots surrounded by yellow haloes. These spots coalesced into necrotic areas. The disease incidence was around 30%, which threatened the survival of these trees and reduced the yield of paper mulberry (Li et al., 2021).
Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries (2021-07-02) AG & Industries News. Citrus canker detected in Alabama. http://agi.alabama.gov/u/news/2021/07/02/citrus-canker-detected-in-alabama
Diallo A, Zougrana S, Sawadogo M, Kone D, Silué D, Szurek B, Wonni I, Hutin M (2021) First report of bacterial leaf streak disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in Ivory Coast. Plant Disease (early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0811-PDN
GOV.UK (2021-07-05) Forestry Commission acts on bark beetle tree pests. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/forestry-commission-acts-on-bark-beetle-tree-pest
Li L, Pan H, Deng L, Feng DD, Zhong CH (2021) First report of bacterial leaf spot disease of Broussonetia papyrifera caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in China. Plant Disease 105(3), 696. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-20-1527-PDN
NPPO of Bulgaria (2021-07).
NPPO of France (2021-07).
NPPO of Spain (2021-04).
Van der Heyden T, Faúndez EI (2020) First records of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Brazil and South Africa. Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 24(1), 28-30. http://www.mades.gov.py/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/24128-30_202062_vanderHeyden_occidentalis.pdf