News from NAPPO
The NAPPO Annual Meeting took place in 2000-10-16/20 at San Diego, California, US, and ;the EPPO Secretariat has selected the following information:
- Following the detection of plum pox potyvirus (PPV – EPPO A2 quarantine pest) in Ontario in June 2000 (EPPO RS 2000/131), a task force has been established including representatives of the administration of the horticultural industry and of research institutions. An eradication plan has been established, in three phases: containment, national survey, eradication. The results of the national survey (covering 80,000 samples in Ontario, 9000 in British Columbia and a few in Nova Scotia and Québec) showed that about 80 positive samples in Ontario, one in Nova Scotia and none elsewhere. The results suggested that, in some cases, PPV may have been present for 3-5 years (see also RS 2001/010).
- Tetropium fuscum (brown longhorn beetle), a species from Europe and Asia has been introduced into Point Pleasant Park, Halifax. It was first found in 1990, but misidentified as a native species. The pest became damaging in 1998, affecting white, red and Norway spruce (Picea glauca, P. rubens, P. abies). It is a primary pest, causing mortality in 2-3 years. An eradication task force has been set up. The pest has not been found beyond a radius of 15 km from the park. Affected trees are incinerated.
- A limited outbreak of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (EPPO Alert List) was found in Mexico, in the Mexicali valley, Baja California, near the California border, and in San Luis Rio Colorado in Sonora. This is under eradication in cooperation with USA.
- Outbreaks of Toxoptera citricida (brown citrus aphid – EPPO A1 quarantine pest) were found in Yucatan and Quintana Roo. It is intended to eradicate the pest within 20 km of citrus-producing areas.
- Pest-free areas are being declared for Tilletia indica (EPPO A1 quarantine pest), and areas of low prevalence for certain fruit flies. In particular, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Chihuahua States are classed as pest-free areas (US also has recognized all the fruit-growing areas in these states as pest-free areas). Coahuila, Nueva Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa States are classed as areas of low prevalence of fruit flies (fruits are exported following a system approach). The aim is to create a continuous west-east band of fruit fly-free States by 2004.
- In Florida, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) is now present in 7 counties (Broward, Dade, Palm Beach, Manatee, Hillsborough, Collier and Hendry) and an active eradication programme has been engaged. Exposed trees are being destroyed within a 600 m radius of infested areas. In the absence of major storms favouring spread of the disease, this campaign is progressing successfully.
- After detection of the outbreak of plum pox potyvirus (PPV – EPPO A2 quarantine pest) in Pennsylvania (EPPO RS 99/169), and in Canada (see above), surveys are being intensified in New York and Michigan.
- The outbreaks of Anoplophora glabripennis (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) in Chicago and New York have been delimited and contained. However, insecticide treatment of trees has only been authorized in Chicago.
- The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata) is widespread in south-east USA and has occurred incidentally in California. It is now recorded as a major new vector of Xylella fastidiosa (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) in California.
- Concerning fruit flies, low numbers of Bactrocera dorsalis (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) have been found in California (not triggering action) and two small outbreaks of Anastrepha ludens (EPPO A1 quarantine pest) in San Bernardino and San Diego counties (eradicated). 159 A. ludens were found in lower Rio Valley, Texas (under eradication).
- Following a PRA, North America has been divided into high, medium and low risk zones for Tilletia indica, based on the dates at which winter and spring wheat crops can be expected to reach the heading stage. High risk zones are relatively restricted. The zones of Mexico where T. indica occurs coincide with high risk zones.
- An analysis has been made of pest interceptions on packing wood over the last 10 years. Over 50 quarantine pests have been intercepted from 27 countries, on 300 consignments. This corresponds to and interception rate of about 3 % for live pests and 8 % for presence of bark or signs of pests.
- A NAPPO alert system is now in place, and may be consulted at www.pestalert.org. It focuses attention on significant new pests, groups of pests or pathways.
EPPO Secretariat, 2000-11.