EPPO Global Database

Prunus dulcis(PRNDU)

Pests

Organism Type
Garella musculana (ERSHMU) Doubtful host
* EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2021) Commodity risk assessment of Juglans regia plants from Turkey. EFSA Journal 19(6), 6665, 99 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6665
------- as 'almond', citing Esonbaev et al. (2020).

* Esonbaev Sh, Hasanov A and Ruzikolov D (2020) Almond and medicinal plants in forest agrobiotsenosis and methods of management of their quantities. Solid State Technology, 63, 624–629.
------- as 'Amygdalus cammunis' (sic). Reported to cause damage on almond fruit. 
This record needs to be confirmed: the journal is not a recognized one in plant health, it is not know if it if peer-reviewed, the quality of English makes it difficult to understand the text. There are no data how the identity of the pest was assesse, and no pictures of damage. 
'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' (as Prunus) (PHYPPR) Experimental
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AGRBTU) Host
Aleurodicus dispersus (as Prunus) (ALEDDI) Host
American plum line pattern virus (as Prunus) (APLPV0) Host
Anarsia lineatella (ANARLI) Host
* Vulchi R, Daane KM, Wenger JA (2021) Development of DNA Melt Curve Analysis for the identification of Lepidopteran pests in almonds and pistachios. Insects 12(6), 553. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060553
Anarsia lineatella (as Prunus) (ANARLI) Host
Anastrepha fraterculus (ANSTFR) Host
* Gonzalez Mendoza R (1952) Contribucion al estudio de las moscas Anastrepha en Colombia. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía 12, 423–549.

* Nasca AJ, Zamora JA, Vergara LE, Jaldo HE (1996) Hospederos de moscas de los frutos en el Valle de Antinaco-Los Colorados, Provincia de La Rioja, República Argentina. Revista de Investigación 10, 19–24.
Apiosporina morbosa (as Prunus) (DIBOMO) Host
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV0) Host
* Yegül M, Baloğlu S (2020) Detection and characterization of some virus diseases seen in almond trees in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Plant Protection Bulletin, 60 (1), 71-84.
Apple mosaic virus (APMV00) Host
Apriona cinerea (as Prunus) (APRICI) Host
* Singh AP, Bhandari RS, Verma TD (2004) Important insect pests of poplars in agroforestry and strategies for their management in northwestern India. Agroforestry Systems 63, 15–26.
'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni' (PHYPPN) Host
* Uyemoto JK, Kirkpatrick BC (2011) X-disease phytoplasma. In: Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits (eds Hadidi A, Barba M, Candresse T, Jelkmann W), pp. 243-245. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA.
'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' (PHYPPR) Host
* Ben Khalifa M, Fakhfakh H (2011) First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' infecting almonds in Tunisia. Phytoparasitica 39(4), 411-414.
'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (PHYPSO) Host
* Zirak L, Bahar M & Ahoonmanesh A (2009) Characterization of phytoplasmas associated with almond diseases in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 157, 736-741.
Capnodis tenebrionis (CAPNTE) Host
Carposina sasakii (CARSSA) Host
* Cho SW, Park K T (1990) The systematics of Korean Carposinidae (Lepidoptera). Insecta Koreana 7, 87-103.
Carposina sasakii (as Prunus) (CARSSA) Host
Ceratitis capitata (CERTCA) Host
* Nasca, AJ, Zamora JA, Vergara LE, Jaldo EH (1996) Hospederos de moscas de los frutos en el Valle de Antinaco-Los Colorados, provincia de La Rioja, República Argentina. Revista de Investigación - Centro de Investigaciones para la Regulación de Poblaciones de Organismos Nocivos 10(1-4), 19-24.
Ceratitis capitata (as Prunus) (CERTCA) Host
Chondrostereum purpureum (STERPU) Host
* Bishop GC (1978) Studies on silver leaf disease of stone and pome fruit trees (Doctoral dissertation, Adelaide, Australia), 155 pp. https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/20649/2/02whole.pdf
------- As Amygdalus communis.

* Fernando A, Ring F, Lowe D, Callan B (1999) Index of plant pathogens, plant-associated microorganisms, and forest fungi of British Columbia. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, 459 pp.
------- As Prunus amygdalus.
Chrysobothris mali (CHRBMA) Host
* Burke HE (1929) The Pacific Flathead Borer. Technical Bulletin - United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., (83). as P. amygdalus

* EPPO (2021) EPPO Technical Document No. 1083. Pest risk analysis for Chrysobothris femorata and C. mali. EPPO, Paris. Available at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CHRBMA/documents
------- confirmed true host of Chrysobothis mali

* Strand L & Ohlendorf B (2002) Integrated Pest Management for Almonds, 2nd Edition. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources

* UC (1999) Crop Profile for Almonds in California - UCANR, 35 pp. Available at https://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/391-12.pdf
Comstockaspis perniciosa (QUADPE) Host
* Ben-Dov Y, German V (2003) A systemic catalogue of the Diaspididae (armoured scale insects) of the world, subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonaspidinae. Intercept Ltd, Andover UK, 1111 pp.
Cydia pomonella (CARPPO) Host
* Wearing CH, Hansen JD, Whyte C, Miller CE, Brown J (2001) The potential for spread of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) via commercial sweet cherry fruit: a critical review and risk assessment. Crop Protection 20(6), 465-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00023-0
Cytospora mali (VALSMA) Host
Diabrotica speciosa (as Prunus) (DIABSC) Host
Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata (DIABUN) Host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 1-476.
-------- Adult host.
Epichoristodes acerbella (as Prunus) (EPIOIO) Host
Epiphyas postvittana (as Prunus) (TORTPO) Host
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (as Prunus) (EUPRCH) Host
Eutetranychus orientalis (EUTEOR) Host
Eutypa lata (EUTYLA) Host
* Holland LA, Trouillas FP, Nouri MT, Lawrence DP, Crespo M, Doll DA, Duncan RA, Holtz BA, Culumber CM, Yaghmour MA, Niederholzer FJ (2021) Fungal pathogens associated with canker diseases of almond in california. Plant Disease, 105(2), 346-360.
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu stricto (EUWAWH) Host
* de Jager MM, Roets F (2022) Pathogenicity of Fusarium euwallaceae, symbiont of the polyphagous shot hole borer beetle, to selected stone fruit trees in South Africa. Journal of Plant Pathology 105(1), 15-13.
------- Breeding host.
Grapholita funebrana (LASPFU) Host
Grapholita funebrana (as Prunus) (LASPFU) Host
Grapholita molesta (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita molesta (as Prunus) (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita packardi (as Prunus) (LASPPA) Host
* Brown JW (2022) A review of host plants for the tortricid tribe Grapholitini, with a synopsis of host utilization by genus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Insecta Mundi 0944, 1 –75.
Grapholita prunivora (as Prunus) (LASPPR) Host
Halyomorpha halys (HALYHA) Host
* Stahl JM, Scaccini D, Daane KM (2021) Field survival of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on California tree crops. Environmental Entomolog 50(5), 1187-1193.
------- confirmed host.
Helicoverpa zea (as Prunus) (HELIZE) Host
* Matthews M (1991) Classification of the Heliothinae. Bulletin of the Natural Resources Institute No. 44. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK.
Homalodisca vitripennis (HOMLTR) Host
* Almeida RPP, Purcell AH (2003) Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) transmission of Xylella fastidiosa to almond. Plant Disease 87, 1255-1259.
Hop stunt viroid (HSVD00) Host
* Hassen IF, Kummert J, Marbot S, Fakhfakh H, Marrakchi M, Jijakli MH (2004) First report of Pear blister canker viroid, Peach latent mosaic viroid, and Hop stunt viroid infecting fruit trees in Tunisia. Plant Disease 88(10), 1164.

* Mu LX, Wu YH, Li SF (2009) First report of hop stunt viroid from almond tree in China. Journal of Plant Pathology 91(4, Suppl.), S4.112.
Hyphantria cunea (as Prunus) (HYPHCU) Host
Little cherry virus 1 (LCHV10) Host
* Šafářová D, Ševčíková V, Neumanová K, Sucha J, Necas T, Navratil M (2020) Molecular characterisation of little cherry virus 1 infecting apricots in the Czech Republic. European Journal of Plant Pathology 158, 83-97.
------- Detected also in one amond tree showing severe leaf mosaic during surveys in Czech Republic.
Little cherry virus 1 (as Prunus) (LCHV10) Host
Lymantria dispar (as Prunus) (LYMADI) Host
Malacosoma americanum (as Prunus) (MALAAM) Host
Malacosoma disstria (as Prunus) (MALADI) Host
Malacosoma parallela (as Prunus) (MALAPA) Host
Meloidogyne floridensis (MELGFL) Host
* Westphal A, Maung ZT, Doll DA, Yaghmour MA, Chitambar JJ, Subbotin SA (2019) First report of the peach root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis infecting almond on root-knot nematode resistant ‘Hansen 536’and ‘Bright's hybrid 5’ rootstocks in California, USA. Journal of Nematology 51, 1-3.
Monilinia fructicola (as Prunus) (MONIFC) Host
Monilinia fructigena (as Prunus) (MONIFG) Host
Monilinia polystroma (MONIPO) Host
* Deltedesco E, Oettl S, Spitaler U (2023) First report of brown rot caused by Monilinia polystroma on sweet cherry and almond in Italy. Plant Disease 107(early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-22-2482-PDN
Naupactus xanthographus (NAUPXA) Host
* Ripa R (1992) Burrito de los frutales Naupactus xanthographus (Germar), INIA, La Cruz, Chile.
Neocosmospora euwallaceae (FUSAEW) Host
* de Jager MM, Roets F (2022) Pathogenicity of Fusarium euwallaceae, symbiont of the polyphagous shot hole borer beetle, to selected stone fruit trees in South Africa. Journal of Plant Pathology 105(1), 15-13.
------- Confirmed host.

* Moreno K, Carrillo JD, Trouillas FP, Eskalen A (2018) Almond (Prunus dulcis) is susceptible to Fusarium euwallaceae, a fungal pathogen vectored by the polyphagous shot hole borer in California. Plant Disease 102(1), p 251.
Nepovirus arabis (ARMV00) Host
Nepovirus avii (as Prunus) (CLRV00) Host
Nepovirus lycopersici (TORSV0) Host
* Azery T, Cycek Y (1997) Detection of virus diseases affecting almond nursery trees in western Anatolia (Turkey). EPPO Bulletin 27, 547–550
Nepovirus nigranuli (TBRV00) Host
Nepovirus nigranuli (as Prunus) (TBRV00) Host
Nepovirus persicae (PRMV00) Host
* Azerý T, Çýçek Y (1997) Detection of virus diseases affecting almond nursery trees in Western Anatolia (Turkey). EPPO Bulletin, 27(4), 547-550.
Nepovirus rubi (RPRSV0) Host
Oemona hirta (OEMOHI) Host
* Lu W, Wang Q (2005) Systematics of the New Zealand longicorn beetle genus Oemona Newman with discussion of the taxonomic position of the Australian species, O. simplex White (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Zootaxa 971, 1-31.

* Plant-SyNZ. Landcare Research (NZ). Host plants of a herbivore -Oemona hirta. http://plant-synz.landcareresearch.co.nz/index.asp). Last accessed 2021-06.
Oligonychus perseae (as Prunus) (OLIGPA) Host
Omophlus lepturoides (as Prunus) (OMOPLE) Host
Orgyia leucostigma (as Prunus) (HEMELE) Host
* Dedes J (2014). Whitemarked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma). Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Insect Production Services 2 p. https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/publications?id=35692 
------- as ''cherry''.
Parabemisia myricae (as Prunus) (PRABMY) Host
Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVD0) Host
* Kyriakopoulou PE, Giunchedi L, Barba M, Boubourakas IN, Kaponi M, Hadidi A (2017) Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid in Temperate Fruit Trees Other Than Peach In: A Hadidi, R Flores, JW Randles and P Palukaitis (eds). Viroids and Satellites. Elsevier, London, UK. pp. 317–330.
Peach mosaic virus (PCMV00) Host
* Cochran LC, Pine TS (1958) Present status of information on host range and host reactions to peach mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter 42, 1225-1228. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31210002702445&seq=1235
Peach rosette phytoplasma (PHYP30) Host
* Kenknight G (1976) Peach rosette. In: Diseases and non-infectious disorders of stone fruits in North America. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 437, pp. 73-76. United States Department of Agriculture, USA.
Peach yellows phytoplasma (PHYP29) Host
* Kirkpatrick BC (1995) Peach yellows. Compendium of Stone Fruit Diseases (eds Ogawa JM, Zehr EI, Bird GW, Ritchie DF, Uriu K & Uyemoto JK) APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, p 57.
Peach yellows phytoplasma (as Prunus) (PHYP29) Host
* Kirkpatrick BC (1995) Peach yellows. Compendium of Stone Fruit Diseases (eds Ogawa JM, Zehr EI, Bird GW, Ritchie DF, Uriu K & Uyemoto JK) APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, p 57.
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Host
* Anonymous (1960) Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook no 165, USDA-ARS (US) 531 pp.
Phytophthora cactorum (as Prunus) (PHYTCC) Host
Phytophthora cinnamomi (PHYTCN) Host
Plum pox virus (PPV000) Host
* Dallot S, Bousalem M, Boeglin M, Renaud LY, Quiot JB (1997) Potential role of almond in sharka epidemics: susceptibility under controlled conditions to the main types of plum pox potyvirus and survey for natural infections in France. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 27, 539–546.

* Damsteegt VD, Scorza R, Stone AL, Schneider WL, Webb K, Demuth M, Gildow FE (2007) Prunus host range of Plum pox virus (PPV) in the United States by aphid and graft inoculation. Plant Disease 91, 18-23.
------- Almond trees can be infected by PPV but show few symptoms.

* Stobbs LW, Van Driel L, Whybourne K, Carlson C, Tulloch M, Van Lier L (2005) Distribution of Plum pox virus in residential sites, commercial nurseries, and native plant species in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease 89, 822-827. 
Plum pox virus (as Prunus) (PPV000) Host
Prune dwarf virus (PDV000) Host
* Yegül M, Baloğlu S (2020) Detection and characterization of some virus diseases seen in almond trees in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Plant Protection Bulletin, 60 (1), 71-84.
Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV0) Host
* Yegül M, Baloğlu S (2020) Detection and characterization of some virus diseases seen in almond trees in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Plant Protection Bulletin, 60 (1), 71-84.
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (PSEAPE) Host
Pseudococcus calceolariae (as Prunus) (PSECGA) Host
Pseudococcus comstocki (as Prunus) (PSECCO) Host
Pseudomonas amygdali (PSDMAM) Host
Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum (as Prunus) (PSDMMP) Host
Reptalus panzeri (as Prunus) (REPTPA) Host
Rhagoletis cingulata (as Prunus) (RHAGCI) Host
Rhagoletis fausta (as Prunus) (RHAGFA) Host
Rhizobium rhizogenes (AGRBRH) Host
Scolytus schevyrewi (as Prunus) (SCOLSH) Host
Stralarivirus fragariae (SLRSV0) Host
Tetranychus pacificus (TETRPA) Host
* Haviland DR, Rill SM, Gordon CA (2021) Treatment thresholds for Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) in California almonds based on monitoring for the natural enemy Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 114(4), 1834-1841.
Theba pisana (THEBPI) Host
Trirachys sartus (AELSSA) Host
* Ahmad MI, Hafiz IA, Chaudhry MI (1977) Biological studies of Aeolesthes sarta Solksy attacking poplars in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 27, 123-129. 

* Duffy EAJ (1968) A monograph of the immature stages of Oriental timber beetles (Cerambycidae). Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London.

* Farashiani ME, Sadeghi SE, Abaii M (2001) Geographic distribution and hosts of sart longhorn beetle, Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 20, 81-96. 

* Gaffar SA, Bhat AA (1991) Management of stem borer, Aeolesthes sarta (Solsky), infesting walnut trees in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Forestry 14, 138- 141.

* Mustafa AM, Janjua NA (1942) Almond growing in Baluchistan. Indian Farming 3, 539-542.

Trogoderma granarium (TROGGA) Host
Xylella fastidiosa (XYLEFA) Host
* Commission database of host plants found to be susceptible to Xylella fastidiosa in the Union Territory (update 12 of 2019-04-11).
------- As X. fastidiosa.

* Marco-Noales E, Barbé S, Monterde A, Navarro-Herrero I, Ferrer A, Dalmau V, Aure CM, Domingo-Calap ML, Landa BB, Roselló M (2021) Evidence that Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of almond leaf scorch disease in Alicante, mainland Spain (Iberian Peninsula). Plant Disease 105(11), 3349-3352.
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (XYLEFF) Host
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (XYLEFM) Host
* Schaad NW, Postnikova E, Lacy G, Fatmi MB, Chang CJ (2004) Xylella fastidiosa subspecies: X. fastidiosa subsp piercei, subsp. nov., X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex subsp. nov., and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca subsp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 27, 290-300.
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (XYLEFP) Host
Anoplophora chinensis (as Prunus) (ANOLCN) Major host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.

* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Aromia bungii (AROMBU) Major host
* NPPO of Italy (2022-04).
'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' (PHYPPH) Major host
* Molino Lova M, Quaglino F, Abou-Jawdah Y, Choueiri E, Sobh H, Casati P, Tedeschi R, Alma A, Bianco P (2011) Identification of new 16SrIX subgroups,-F and-G, among ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ strains infecting almond, peach and nectarine in Lebanon. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 50, 273–282.
------- confirmed host

* Nigro F, Sion V, Antelmi I, Choueiri E, Habib W, Bruno A, Boscia D (2020) First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ on almond in Southern Italy. Plant Disease 104(1), 278.
Eurytoma amygdali (EURTAM) Major host
Malacosoma parallela (MALAPA) Major host
Pseudococcus viburni (as Prunus) (PSECOB) Major host
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (XANTPR) Major host
* Gerin D, Cariddi RM, de Miccolis Angelini RM, Dongiovanni C, Faretra F, Pollastro S (2019) First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on almond in Italy. Plant Disease 103(5), p 1018.
------- On almond (Prunus dulcis) in Puglia, Italy.

* Nagy JK, Bozsó Z, Szatmári A, Süle S, Szabó Z, Király L, Schwarczinger I (2020) First report of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni on almond in Hungary. Plant Disease 104(2), p 562.

* Palacio-Bielsa A, Roselló M, Cambra MA, López MM (2010) First report on almond in Europe of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Plant Disease 94(6), 786-786.

* Rosello M, Santiago R, Palacio-Bielsa A, Garcia-Figueres F, Monton C, Cambra MA, Lopez MM (2012) Current status of bacterial spot of stone fruits and almond caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology  94 (1, Suppl.), S1.15-21.
Xylotrechus namanganensis (XYLONM) Major host