EPPO Global Database

Zea mays(ZEAMX)

Pests

Organism Type
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (CORBMI) Doubtful host
* Stamova L, Sotirova V (1987) Reaction of different crops to artificial inoculation with Corynebacterium michiganense (E.F. Sm.) H.L. Jensen. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz 23, 211–216.
------- Experimental. Causing wilted leaflets. Not confirmed in other publications. Pending confirmation, all monocotyledonous host plants reported by Stamova & Satirova (1987) are considered doubtful.
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV00) Experimental
Clavibacter sepedonicus (CORBSE) Experimental
* van der Wolf JM, van Beckhoven JRCM, Hakkunen A, Karjalainen R, Müller P (2005) Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot of potato, in weeds and field crops. Journal of Phytopathology 153, 358-365.
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Experimental
* Anonymous (1960) Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook no 165, USDA-ARS (US) 531 pp.
------- noted as host.

* Lyda SD, 1978. Ecology of Phymatotrichum omnivorum. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 16, 193–209. Available
online: http://annurev.py.16.090178.001205
-------- in experiments, lesions were visible on the corn roots from infested soil but no P. omnivorum could be recovered. Can affect corn plants in sterile medium, but not in fields.

* Uppalapati SR, Young CA, Marek SM, Mysore KS (2010) Phymatotrichum (cotton) root rot caused by Phymatotrichopsis omnivora: Retrospects and prospects. Molecular Plant Pathology 11(3), 325-334.
------- noted as non host.
Radopholus similis (RADOSI) Experimental
Spongospora subterranea (SPONSU) Experimental
* Simango K, Slabbert CP, van der Waals JE (2020) Alternative hosts of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in southern Africa. Eur J Plant Pathol 157(6), 421–424. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-020-01993-z
Acidovorax avenae (PSDMAV) Host
Adoretus sinicus (ADORSI) Host
Aeneolamia contigua (TOMAPO) Host
Agrotis segetum (AGROSE) Host
Asproparthenis punctiventris (CLEOPU) Host
Atherigona oryzae (ATHEOZ) Host
Atherigona reversura (ATHERE) Host
* Pont AC, Magpayo FR (1995) Muscid shoot-flies of the Philippine Islands (Diptera, Muscidae, genus Atherigona Rondani). Bulletin of Entomological Research, Supplement 3, 1–123.
Aulacophora hilaris (AUACHI) Host
Bagrada hilaris (BAGRHI) Host
Brachyplatys subaeneus (BRAPSU) Host
* Añino YJ, Zumba-Zhongor M, Naranjo-Morán JA, Rodríguez R, Santos-Murgas A, Zachrisson B (2020) Primer reporte de Brachyplatys subaeneus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) en Ecuador y el listado sinóptico de sus plantas hospedantes. IDESIA (Chile) 38(1), 113-118.
Ceratothripoides brunneus (CRTZBR) Host
Chilo infuscatellus (DIATIN) Host
Chrysodeixis eriosoma (CHRXER) Host
Cicadulina mbila (CICDMB) Host
Conoderus rufangulus (CONORU) Host
Cryptoblabes gnidiella (CRYBGN) Host
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (CORBFL) Host
* Harveson RM, Schwartz HF, Urrea CA, Yonts CD (2015) Bacterial wilt of dry-edible beans in the central high plains of the U.S.: past, present, and future. Plant Disease 99, 1665–1677.
------- When grown in rotation with infected dry bean crops. Maize was also infected by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis.
Cylas puncticollis (CYLAPU) Host
Delia arambourgi (HYLEAR) Host
Diaprepes abbreviatus (DPREAB) Host
Diatraea saccharalis (DIATSA) Host
Dichocrocis punctiferalis (DICHPU) Host
Didymella maydis (MYCOZM) Host
Ditylenchus destructor (DITYDE) Host
* Pan F, Li F, Mao Y, Liu D, Chen A, Zhao D, Hu Y (2021) First detection of Ditylenchus destructor parasitizing maize in Northeast China. Life 11, 1303. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121303
------- Affected maize plants were stunted. Host status confirmed by inoculation experiments.
Ditylenchus dipsaci (DITYDI) Host
Earias insulana (EARIIN) Host
Elasmopalpus lignosellus (ELASLI) Host
* Gill HK, Capinera JL, McSorley R (2017) Featured Creatures. Lesser cornstalk borer. Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Insecta: lepidoptera: Pyralidae). University of Florida (US). http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/field/lesser_cornstalk_borer.htm

* Sandhu HS (2010) Biology and cultural control of lesser cornstalk borer on sugarcane. PhD thesis. University of Florida. https://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/E0/04/14/72/00001/sandhu_h.pdf

* Xavier LMS, Laumann RA, Borges M, Magalhães DM, Vilela EF, Blassioli-Moraes MC (2011) Trichogramma pretiosum attraction due to the Elasmopalpus lignosellus damage in maize. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46(6), 578-585.
Eldana saccharina (ELDASA) Host
Emaravirus tritici (WHPV00) Host
* Jensen SG, Lane LC, Seifers DL (1996) A new disease of maize and wheat in the High Plains. Plant Disease 80, 1387–1390.

* Seifers DL, Harvey TL, Martin TJ, Jensen SG (1998) A partial host range of the High Plains virus of corn and wheat. Plant Disease 82, 875–879.

* Tatineni S, Hein GL (2021) High Plains wheat mosaic virus: An enigmatic disease of wheat and corn causing the High Plains disease. Molecular Plant Pathology, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13113
Erwinia chrysanthemi (ERWICH) Host
Fusarium circinatum (GIBBCI) Host
* Drenkhan R, Ganley B, Martín-García J, Vahalík P, Adamson K, Adamčíková K, Ahumada R, Blank L et al. (2020) Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker. Forests 11(7), 724.
------- Natural non-Pinus host.
Haplaxius crudus (MYNDCR) Host
* Villanueva-Barradas J, Carrillo H, Pina J (1986) Distribución en México de Myndus crudus, Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cixiidae), vector del amarillamiento letal del cocotero. XII Congreso Nacional de Entomologia (Monterrey, MX, 1986-03-16/19), pp.16-19.
------- Nymph host.
Helicoverpa armigera (HELIAR) Host
* Cunningham JP, Zalucki MP (2014) Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant? Journal of Economic Entomology 107, 881–896.
Heterodera elachista (HETDEL) Host
* De Luca F, Vovlas N, Lucarelli G, Troccoli A, Radicci V, Fanelli E, Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C, Palomares Rius JE, Castillo P (2013) Heterodera elachista the Japanese cyst nematode parasitizing corn in Northern Italy: integrative diagnosis and bionomics. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136(4), 857-872.
-------Found in maize crop in 2012 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

* Xiao DX, Feng YX, Zhou Y, Xuan YH, Chen LJ, Wang YY, Liu XY, Duan YX, Zhu XF (2019) First report of Heterodera elachista on Zea mays and Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis in Liaoning Province, China. Plant Disease 103(6), 1433-1434.
------- On roots of maize (Liaoning province, China). No above ground symptoms were observed.
Homalodisca vitripennis (HOMLTR) Host
* Turner WF, Pollard HN (1959) Life histories and behavior of five insect vectors of phony peach disease. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1188, 28 pp.
-------- Feeding host.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi (MELGCH) Host
* O’Bannon JH, Santo GS, Nyczepir AP (1982) Host range of the Columbia root-knot nematode. Plant Disease 66, 1045-1048.
Meloidogyne graminicola (MELGGC) Host
* Rusinque L, Maleita C, Abrantes I, Palomares-Rius JE, Inácio ML (2021) Meloidogyne graminicola - A threat to rice production: review update on distribution, biology, identification, and management. Biology 10, 1163. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111163
Meloidogyne luci (MELGLC) Host
* Sen F, Aydinli (2021) Host status of cultivated crops to Meloidogyne luci. European Journal of Plant Pathology 161(3), 607-618.
------- In experiments, cultivars tested showed variable host status from poor host (Apex, Merit F1), to good host (cvs. Otello, Sy Lucroso).
Metamasius hemipterus (METAHE) Host
Mussidia nigrivenella (MUSSNV) Host
* Silvie P (1990) Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Pyralidae, Phycitinae): a little known cotton pest. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 45(4), 323-333.
Mythimna separata (PSEDSE) Host
Nacoleia octasema (HEDYOC) Host
Naupactus leucoloma (GRAGLE) Host
* Lanteri AA, Marvaldi AE, Suárez SM (2002) Gorgojos de la Argentina y sus plantas huéspedes. Tomo I: Apionidae y Curculionidae. Publicación Especial de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 1, 98 pp.
Naupactus xanthographus (NAUPXA) Host
* Caballero VC (1972) Algunos aspectos de la biología y control de Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en durazneros en Chile. Rev Peru Entomol. 15(1):190–194
------- adult feeding only.
Opogona sacchari (OPOGSC) Host
* Oldham JN (1928) Hieroxestis subcervinella, Wlk., an enemy of the banana in the Canary Islands. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 19(2), 147-166. 
-------"the number of maize plants which were infected was very small".
Pantoea ananatis (ERWIAN) Host
* Cui L, Zou C, Zhang Z, Duan L, Huang J, Wang L, Xiao W, Yang X, Xiang Y, Li W, Li X (2022) First Report of Maize White Spot Disease Caused by Pantoea ananatis in China. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-22-0152-PDN

* Toaza A, Caiza RB, Garrido A, Moreno C, Guevara JL, Regalado H, Ramos L, Flores F, Garrido P (2021) First report of Pantoea ananatis causing leaf spot disease of maize in Ecuador. Plant Disease 105(10), 3286. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0298-PDN
Perkinsiella saccharicida (PERKSA) Host
Peronosclerospora maydis (PRSCMA) Host
Peronosclerospora sorghi (PRSCSO) Host
Peronosclerospora spontanea (SCLPST) Host
Pheletes californicus (LIMOCF) Host
Physoderma maydis (PHYDMA) Host
Platynota stultana (PLAAST) Host
* Hoover GA, Biddinger DJ (2014) Omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Penn State Extension Pest Alert. https://ento.psu.edu/files/omnivorous-leafroller/view

* Powell JA (1983) Expanding geographical and ecological range of Platynota stultana in California. Pan–Pacific Entomologist 59, 233–239.
Pyricularia oryzae (PYRIOR) Host
Reptalus panzeri (REPTPA) Host
Rhabdoscelus obscurus (SPPHOB) Host
Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV0) Host
* Cao W, Wang R, Cao J, Gao J, Zhao X, Gan L, Zhu C (2022) Genome‐wide identification and characterization of long noncoding RNAs in maize under rice black streaked dwarf virus infection. Plant Pathology 71(3), 741-749.
Robbsia andropogonis (PSDMAD) Host
Sclerophthora macrospora (SCPHMA) Host
Spodoptera eridania (PRODER) Host
Spodoptera mauritia (SPODMA) Host
Spodoptera ornithogalli (PRODOR) Host
* Brito R, Specht A, Gonçalves GL, Moreira GRP, Carneiro E, Santos FL, Roque-Specht VF, Mielke OHH, Casagrande MM (2019) Spodoptera marima: a new synonym of Spodoptera ornithogalli (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with notes on adult morphology, host plant use and genetic variation along its geographic range. Neotropical Entomology 48(3), 433-448.

* Capinera JL (2017) Yellowstriped Armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida /IFAS Extension, EENY216, 4p. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN37300.pdf

* Comstock JA (1965) Ciclo biologico de Prodenia ornithogalli Guenée (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoologia 36, 199-202.

* Coto D, Saunders JL, Vargas-S CL, King ABS (1995) Plagas invertebradas de cultivos tropicales con énfasis em América Central-Um invetário. Turrialba, CATIE, 200 pp.

* Crumb SE (1929) Tobacco cutworms. USDA Technical Bulletin 88, p 179.

* Poveda BD, Schwitzer DA (1964) Estudio biológico del Prodenia ornithogalli Guen. y del Prodenia sunia (Guen.) en três hospedeiros. Acta Agronômica 14(1), 71-101.

* Rings RW, Musick GJ (1976) A pictorial field key to the armyworms and cutworms attacking corn in the north central States.  Research Circular, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center no. 221, 36 pp.

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts
Spodoptera praefica (PRODPR) Host
* British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture. Western yellowstriped armyworm (Spodoptera praefica). https://rdno.civicweb.net/document/127358/western-yellowstriped-armyworm.pdf?handle=3CD053B4F8D54F9CBB93F8D6D5572C27

* University of California. Agriculture & Natural Resources. UC IPM. Maize. Western yellowstriped armyworm. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/r113300811.html
Striga asiatica (STRLU) Host
Thrips hawaiiensis (THRIHA) Host
* Sartiami D, Mound LA (2013) Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia. ZooKeys 306, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.306.5455
------- Collected from this plant in Java (Indonesia).
Thrips palmi (THRIPL) Host
* Elizondo AI, Murguido CA, Pérez I, Piedra F, Peña E, Martínez M, Martell M, de los Ángeles Fernández M, Sariol H, Rodríguez S, Jiménez R, Granda G, Palacios F (2003) Thrips palmi Karny en la agricultura cubana. Fitosanidad 7(2), 1-9.
Thrips parvispinus (THRIPV) Host
* Sartiami D, Mound LA (2013) Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia. ZooKeys 306, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.306.5455
------- Collected from this plant in Java (Indonesia).
Trichoderma afroharzianum (TRCDAF) Host
Trichoderma afroharzianum is associated with various substrates (e.g. soil, roots, fungi) and is sued as a biocontrol agent. However, in some cases, it has been associated with symptoms of ear rot on maize.

* Pfordt A, Schiwek S, Karlovsky P, von Tiedemann A (2020) Trichoderma afroharzianum ear rot – A new disease on maize in Europe. Frontiers in Agronomy 2, 547758. https://doi.org/10.3389/fagro.2020.547758

* Sanna M, Pugliese M, Gullino ML, Mezzalama M (2022) First report of Trichoderma afroharzianum causing seed rot on maize in Italy. Plant Disease (early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2697-PDN
Trichodorus viruliferus (TRIHVI) Host
Trogoderma granarium (TROGGA) Host
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (TYLRCL) Host
Xanthomonas vasicola pv. holcicola (XANTHO) Host
* Bradbury JF (1986) Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. CAB International, Wallingford (GB).
Alphanucleorhabdovirus zeairanense (MIRMV0) Major host
Aphelenchoides besseyi (APLOBE) Major host
* Bridge J, Plowright RA, Peng D (2005) Nematode parasites of rice. In: Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture (eds Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J), pp. 87-130.
Bipolaris zeicola (COCHCA) Major host
* Lu C, Wu Y, Ho H, Mao Z, He Y (2014) Identification of races and mating types of Cochliobolus carbonum from corn in the Yunnan province in China. Journal of Phytopathology 162(5), 313-321.
Busseola fusca (BUSSFU) Major host
'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (PHYPSO) Major host
* Genov N, Mitrovic J, Genov M, Duduk B (2014) First report of corn reddening caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' in Bulgaria. Plant Disease 98(7), p 991.

* Kovacevic M, Ðuric Z, Jovic J, Perkovic G, Lolic B, Hrncic S, Toševski I,Delic D (2014) First report of stolbur phytoplasma associated with maize redness disease of maize in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease 98(3), p 418.

* Quaglino F, Zhao Y, Casati P, Bulgari D, Bianco PA, Wei W, Davis RE (2013) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63, 2879-2894.
Chilo agamemnon (CHILAG) Major host
Chilo partellus (CHILZO) Major host
Clavibacter nebraskensis (CORBNE) Major host
* Webster BT, Curland RD, Hirsch CD, McNally RR, Malvick DK, Ishimaru CA (2020) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of strains of Clavibacter nebraskensis associated with recent and historic Goss's wilt epidemics in the north Central USA. Plant Patholology 69(8): 990– 1002. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.13185
Claviceps gigantea (CLAVGI) Major host
Delia platura (HYLEPL) Major host
Diabrotica barberi (DIABLO) Major host
* Branson TF, Ortman EE (1967) Host range of larvae of the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 40(3), 412-414.
------- Confirmed host.

* Oyediran IO, French BW, Clark TL, Dashiell KE, Hibbard BE (2008) Prairie grasses as hosts of the northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environmental Entomology 37, 247-254.
Diabrotica speciosa (DIABSC) Major host
Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (DIABUH) Major host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 1-476.
------- Larval host.
Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata (DIABUN) Major host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 1-476.
-------- Larval and adult host.
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (DIABVI) Major host
Diabrotica virgifera zeae (DIABVZ) Major host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 615 pp.
------- Larval host.
Eoreuma loftini (EORELO) Major host
* Showler AT, Wilson BE, Reagan TE (2012) Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology 105(5), 1597-1602.
Eriophyes zealus (ERPHZE) Major host
Exomala orientalis (ANMLOR) Major host
Halyomorpha halys (HALYHA) Major host
Helicoverpa zea (HELIZE) Major host
* Johnson MW, Stinner RE, Rabb RL (1975) Ovipositional response of Heliothis zea (Boddie) to its major hosts in North Carolina. Environmental Entomology 4(2), 291-297.

* Reay-Jones FPF (2019) Pest status and management of corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in field corn in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management 10(1) 19. https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmz017
Heterodera zeae (HETDZE) Major host
Heteronychus arator (HETRAR) Major host
Laodelphax striatellus (CALGMA) Major host
Listronotus bonariensis (HYROBO) Major host
* Kain WM & Barker MA (1966) Argentine stem weevil: a pest of maize: Proceedings of the 19th Weed and Pest Control Conference, pp. 180-185.   Sigma Print, Petone, Dunedin, New Zealand
------- Severe damage in crops following infested pasture.

* Morrone JJ (2011) Annotated checklist of the tribe Listroderini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cyclominae). Zootaxa 3119, 1-68.
Maize mottle/chlorotic stunt virus (MMCSV0) Major host
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV00) Major host
Maize streak virus (MSV000) Major host
Maize stripe tenuivirus (MSPV00) Major host
Melanotus communis (MELNCO) Major host
Orgyia leucostigma (HEMELE) Major host
* Belton EM (1988) Lepidoptera on fruit crops in Canada, Simon Fraser University, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Pest Management Program, Burnaby, BC. 105 pp.

* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp.

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW & Hernández LM (2010) HOST - A database of the world's Lepidopteran hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. https://www.nhm.ac.uk (Accessed on 7 December 2020 and 21 March 2021)

* Webster RL (1916) The white-marked tussock-moth. Circular. Paper 33. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/iaes_circulars/39
Ostrinia nubilalis (PYRUNU) Major host
Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (ERWIST) Major host
* Roper MC (2011) Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii : lessons learned from a xylem‐dwelling pathogen of sweet corn. Molecular Plant Pathology, 12, 628–637.
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (PRSCPH) Major host
Peronosclerospora sacchari (PRSCSA) Major host
Phyllachora maydis (PHYRMA) Major host
* Valle-Torres J, Ross TJ, Plewa D, Avellaneda MC, Check J, Chilvers MI, Cruz AP, Dalla Lana F, Groves C, Gongora-Canul C, Henriquez-Dole L, Jamann T, Kleczewski N, Lipps S, Malvick D, McCoy AG, Mueller DS, Paul PA, Puerto C, Schloemer C, Raid RN, Robertson A, Roggenkamp EM, Smith DL, Telenko DEP, Cruz CD (2020) Tar spot: An understudied disease threatening corn production in the Americas. Plant Disease 104(10), 2541-2550.
Popillia japonica (POPIJA) Major host
* Fleming WE (1972) Biology of the Japanese beetle. Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, USDA no 1449, 129 pp.
Prostephanus truncatus (PROETR) Major host
* Muatinte BL, Van den berg J (2019) Suitability of Wild Host Plants and Firewood as Hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Mozambique. Journal of Economic Entomology 112(4), 1705–1712, https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz042
------- confirmed host
Punctodera chalcoensis (PUNCCH) Major host
Sclerophthora rayssiae (SCPHRZ) Major host
Serratia marcescens (SERRMA) Major host
Sesamia calamistis (SESACA) Major host
Sesamia cretica (SESACR) Major host
Sesamia uniformis (SESAUN) Major host
Spiroplasma kunkelii (SPIRKU) Major host
* Barontini JM, Malavera AP, Ferrer M, Torrico AK, Maurino MF, Giménez Pecci MP (2021) Infection with Spiroplasma kunkelii on temperate and tropical x temperate maize in Argentina and development of a tool to evaluate germplasm. European Journal of Plant Pathology 162, 455–463.

* Carloni E, Carpane P, Paradell S, Laguna I, Giménez Pecci MP (2013) Presence of Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and of Spiroplasma kunkelii in the Temperate Region of Argentina. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(4), 1574-1581.

* Nault LR (1980) Maize bushy stunt and corn stunt: a comparison of disease symptoms, pathogen host ranges, and vectors. Phytopathology 70,  659–662.

* Smith D, Niederhauser J (1958) Occurrence of corn stunt virus in Central America and Colombia. Plant Disease Reporter 42, p 152.
Spodoptera frugiperda (LAPHFR) Major host
* Maruthadurai R, Ramesh R (2020) Occurrence, damage pattern and biology of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on fodder crops and green amaranth in Goa, India. Phytoparasitica 18(1), 15-23.

* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez DR, Roque-Specht VF, Sousa-Silva JC, Paula-Moraes SV, Peterson JA, Hunt T (2018) Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology 26, 286-300.
Spodoptera littoralis (SPODLI) Major host
* George D, Babalola OO, Gatehouse AMR (2011) Differential protein expression in maize (Zea mays) in response to insect attack. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(39), 7700-7709.

* Salama HS, Dimetry NZ, Salem SA (1970) On the host preference and biology of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis Bois. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 67(1-4), 261–266.
Spodoptera litura (PRODLI) Major host
Stenocarpella macrospora (DIPDMC) Major host
Stenocarpella maydis (DIPDMA) Major host
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV00) Major host
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (ARGPLE) Major host
* Ndemah R & Schulthess F (2002) Yield of maize in relation to natural field infestations and damage by lepidopteran borers in the forest and forest/savanna transition zones of Cameroon. Insect Science and its Application. 22: 3, 183-192.

* Reed W (1974) The false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta Mayr. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) as a pest of cotton in Uganda. Cotton Growing Review 51: 213-225.