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* Prentice RM (1966) Vol. 4. Microlepidoptera. In: Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the Forest Insect Survey. Department of Forestry Canada, Publication 1142 (1965), 543–840.
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------ only occassionally observed.
* Fernando A, Ring F, Lowe D, Callan B (1999) Index of plant pathogens, plant-associated microorganisms, and forest fungi of British Columbia. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, 459 pp.
* Leal I, Bergeron MJ, Feau N, Tsui CKM, Foord B, Pellow K, Hamelin RC & Sturrock RN (2019) Cryptic speciation in western North America and Eastern Eurasia of the pathogens responsible for laminated root rot. Phytopathology 109(3), 456–468. https://doi:10.1094/PHYTO-12-17-0399-R
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* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
* Lindquist EE, Wu KW (1991) Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae, Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes Aphelenchoididae, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner And Buhrer) Nickle, with descriptions of 6 new species from Japan and North-America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist 123(4), 875-927.
* Koot HP (1991) Western black-headed budworm. Forest Pest Leaflet 24. Information Canada, Cat. No. Fo. 29-6/24-1992E.
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* Prebble ML & Graham K (1945) The current outbreak of defoliating insects in coast hemlock forests of British Columbia. Part I. Description of outbreak and damage. Part II. Factors of natural control. British Columbian Lumberman Nos 1369, 1370.
* Calkins SJ, Shaw DC, Lan Y‐H (2021) Transformation of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) tree crowns by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense, Viscaceae). Forest Pathology 51, e12664.
* Hawksworth FG, Wiens D (1996) Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. USDA - Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 709, 429 pp.
------- Principal host for A. tsugense subsp. tsugense but rare host for A. tsugense subsp. mertensianae.
* Maine Forest Service (2001) Hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria (Gn.). Maine Department of Conservation. https://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/forest_health/insects/hemlock_looper.htm
------- Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria
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