* Llewellyn-Jones JRJ (1935) Some food plants of lepidopterous larvae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 31, 28-32.
* Prentice RM (1966) Vol. 4. Microlepidoptera. In: Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the Forest Insect Survey. Department of Forestry Canada, Publication 1142 (1965), 543–840.
* Wood, CS & van Sickle GA (1992) Pine needle scale in the Pacific and Yukon Region. Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. FIDS Pest Report 92-09. Available at https://scf.rncan.gc.ca/publications?id=31590&&lang=en_CA
------ only occassionally observed.
* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
* Lindquist EE, Wu KW (1991) Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae, Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes Aphelenchoididae, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner And Buhrer) Nickle, with descriptions of 6 new species from Japan and North-America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist 123(4), 875-927.
* Calkins SJ, Shaw DC, Lan Y‐H (2021) Transformation of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) tree crowns by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense, Viscaceae). Forest Pathology 51, e12664.
* Hawksworth FG, Wiens D (1996) Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. USDA - Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 709, 429 pp.
------- Principal host for A. tsugense subsp. tsugense but rare host for A. tsugense subsp. mertensianae.
* Maine Forest Service (2001) Hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria (Gn.). Maine Department of Conservation. https://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/forest_health/insects/hemlock_looper.htm
------- Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria
* Pérez‐Sierra A, Chitty R, Eacock A, Jones B, Biddle M, Crampton M, Lewis A, Olivieri L, Webber JF (2022) First report of Phytophthora pluvialis in Europe causing resinous cankers on western hemlock. New Disease Reports 45(1):e12064. https://doi.org/10.1002/ndr2.12064