EPPO Global Database

Pyrus communis(PYUCO)


Organism Type
Grapholita packardi (LASPPA) Doubtful host
Brown (2022) lists “Pyrus communis L. (as Malus domestica) “ as a host of G. packardi. However Pyrus communis is not a synonym of Malus domestica, and the references used to support this listing (MacKay, 1959) only mention “apples, rose, hawthorn, and possibly peach”

* Brown JW (2022) A review of host plants for the tortricid tribe Grapholitini, with a synopsis of host utilization by genus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Insecta Mundi 0944, 1 –75.
* MacKay MR (1959) Larvae of the North American Olethreutidae (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist Supplement 10,  1–338.
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (ARGPLE) Doubtful host
* Pringle KL, Heunis JM (2015) De Villiers M (Phytosanitary host status of apples as a host for false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). African Entomology 23( 1).
------- Blomefield (1989) and Newton (1998) are cited in publication mentionning apples or pear as host. However, these last two authors did not actually mention apples or pears as hosts for T. leucotreta.  Publications by Timm 2005; Timm et al. 2007; Timm et al. 2010 refers to traps in orchards, no finding in fruits.
Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVD0) Experimental
* Lin L, Li R, Mock R, Kinard G (2011) Development of a polyprobe to detect six viroids of pome and stone fruit trees. Journal of Virological Methods 171(1), 91-97.
------- Found in a germplasm collection in Beltsville (US). Exprimental host status demonstrated. However, natural host status of pear remains to be confirmed.
Adoxophyes orana (CAPURE) Host
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (as Pyrus) (AGRBTU) Host
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (ALECSN) Host
* Cioffi M, Cornara D, Corrado I, Jansen MGM & Porcelli F (2013) The status of Aleurocanthus spiniferus from its unwanted introduction in Italy to date. Bulletin of Insectology 66, 273-281.
Aleurocanthus woglumi (ALECWO) Host
* Shaw JG (1950) Hosts of the citrus blackfly in Mexico. United States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. E-793, 3 pp.
Anarsia lineatella (ANARLI) Host
Anarsia lineatella (as Pyrus) (ANARLI) Host
Anastrepha ludens (ANSTLU) Host
* Baker AC, Stone WE, Plummer CC, McPhail M (1944) A review of studies on the Mexican fruitfly and related Mexican species. USDA Miscellaneous Publications, 155 pp.

* Eskafi FM, Cunningham RT (1987) Host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in Guatemala. Florida Entomologist 70, 116-123.

* Mackie DB (1928) An investigation of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in the lower Rio Grande valley of Texas. Monthly Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 17, 295-323.
Anastrepha suspensa (ANSTSU) Host
* Anonymous (1968) [Host records for Tephritidae]. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 18, 54, 153, 260, 365, 452, 926, 950.

* Anonymous (1968) [Host records for Tephritidae]. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 18, 54, 153, 260, 365, 452, 926, 950.

* Swanson RW, Baranowski RM (1972) Host range and infestation by the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae), in south Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 271-273.
Anthonomus pomorum (ANTHPO) Host
Anthonomus quadrigibbus (TACYQU) Host
* Buckell ER (1930) The apple curculio as a pear pest in British Columbia. Canadian Entomologist 62, 47-49.

* Maier CT (1990) Native and exotic rosaceous hosts of apple, plum, and quince curculio larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northeastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 83, 1326–1332.
Aphis citricidus (TOXOCI) Host
* Michaud JP (1998) A review of the literature on Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Florida Entomologist 81(1), 37-61.

* Singh G, Singh R (2017) Food plant records of Aphidini (Aphidinae: Aphididae: Hemiptera) in India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(2), 1280-1302.
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV0) Host
* Zuļģe N, Gospodaryk A, Moročko–Bičevska I (2023) Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus isolates from Malus, Pyrus and Prunus hosts in Latvia. Plant Pathology 72(5), 900-911.
Apple mosaic virus (APMV00) Host
Apple rubbery wood agent (ARW000) Host
* Wang Y, Wang GP, Hong N, Wang YX, Yang ZK, Guo JS, Zhang Z, Li L, Li YJ, Li QY, Xu L, Qi LY (2019) First report of Apple Rubbery Wood Virus 2 infecting pear (Pyrus spp.) in China. Plant Disease 103(12), 3293.
------- confirmed host. 
Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV00) Host
* Jelkmann W, Paunovic S (2011) Apple stem pitting virus. In: Hadidi A, Barba M, Candresse T, Jelkmann W (eds) Virus and virus-like diseases of pome and stone fruits, pp 35-40.

* Mathioudakis MM, Maliogka VI, Katsiani AT, Katis NI (2010) Incidence and molecular variability of apple stem pitting and Apple chlorotic leaf spot viruses in apple and pear orchards in greece. Journal of Plant Pathology 92(1), 139-147.

* Nemeth M (1986) Virus, mycoplasma and rickettsia diseases of fruit trees. Akademiai Kiado, 841 pp.
Apriona cinerea (as Pyrus) (APRICI) Host
* Singh AP, Bhandari RS, Verma TD (2004) Important insect pests of poplars in agroforestry and strategies for their management in northwestern India. Agroforestry Systems 63, 15–26.
Apriona germari (as Pyrus) (APRIGE) Host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Bactrocera dorsalis (DACUDO) Host
* Han P, Wang X, Niu CY, Dong YC, Zhu JQ, Desneux N (2011) Population dynamics, phenology, and overwintering of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hubei Province, China. Journal of Pest Science 84, 289-295.
Bactrocera tryoni (DACUTR) Host
* Hancock D, Hamacek EL, Lloyd AC, Elson-Harris MM (2000) The distribution and host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Australia. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 75 pp.
Bactrocera zonata (DACUZO) Host
* Kapoor VC (1993) Indian fruit flies (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). Oxford & IBH Publishing, 228 pp,
Botryosphaeria kuwatsukai (PHYOPI) Host
* Xu C, Wang CS, Ju LL, Zhang R, Biggs AR, Tanaka E, Li BZ, Sun GY (2015) Multiple locus genealogies and phenotypic characters reappraise the causal agent of apple ring rot in China. Fungal Diversity 71, 215-231.
------ Confirmed host.
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (TORTPR) Host
Cacopsylla chinensis (CCPSCH) Host
* Wei M, Chi H, Guo Y, Li X, Zhao L, Ma R (2022) Demography of Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) reared on four cultivars of Pyrus bretschneideri (Rosales: Rosaceae) and P. communis pears with estimations of confidence intervals of specific life table statistics. Journal of Economic Entomology 113(5), 2343–2353, https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa149
------- less favorable host than Pyrus bretschneideri.
Cacopsylla chinensis (as Pyrus) (CCPSCH) Host
'Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus' (LIBEEU) Host
* Raddadi N, Gonella E, Camerota C, Pizzinat A, Tedeschi R, Crotti E, Mandrioli M, Bianco PA, Daffonchio D, Alma A (2010) ‘Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus’ sp. nov. that is associated with and transmitted by the psyllid Cacopsylla pyri apparently behaves as an endophyte rather than a pathogen. Environmental Microbiology 13(2), 414–426.
------- First description on Pyrus communis (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, IT).
'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (PHYPMA) Host
* Canik Orel D, Paltrinieri S, Ertunç F, Bertaccini A (2019)  Molecular diversity of 'Candidatus phytoplasma' species in pome and stone fruits in Turkey. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 59(1) 7-14.

* Del Serrone P, La Starza S, Krystai L, Kölber M, Barba M (1998) Occurrence of apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas in diseased pear trees in Hungary. Journal of Plant Pathology 80, 53–58.

* Seemüller E, Schneider B (2004) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54(2), 1217–1226.
'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (PHYPSO) Host
* Križanac I, Mikec I, Budinščak Ž, Šeruga Musić M, Škorić D (2010) Diversity of phytoplasmas infecting fruit trees and their vectors in Croatia. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117 (5), 206–213.
Carposina sasakii (CARSSA) Host
Carposina sasakii (as Pyrus) (CARSSA) Host
* Wang YZ, Li BY, Hoffmann AA, Cao LJ, Gong YJ, Song W, Zhu JY, Wei SJ (2017) Patterns of genetic variation among geographic and host-plant associated populations of the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). BMC Ecology and Evolution 17, 265 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-1116-7
Ceratitis capitata (CERTCA) Host
* De Meyer M., Copeland RS, Lux SA, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White IM, Zenz NJ (2002) Annotated check list of host plants for Afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Zoologische Documentatie Koninklijk Museum voor Midden Afrika 27, 1-91.
Ceratitis malgassa (CERTMA) Host
* Rasolofoarivao H, Raveloson Ravaomanarivo LH, Delatte H (2021) Host plant ranges of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Madagascar. Bulletin of Entomological Research 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007485321000511
Ceratitis quilicii (CERTQI) Host
* De Meyer M, Mwatawala M, Copeland RS, Virgilio M (2016) Description of new Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Africa, or how morphological and DNA data are complementary in discovering unknown species and matching sexes. European Journal of Taxonomy 233, 1-23. 
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis rosa (CERTRO) Host
Ceratitis rosa (as Pyrus) (CERTRO) Host
Ceroplastes ceriferus (CERPCE) Host
Chondrostereum purpureum (STERPU) Host
* Bishop GC (1978) Studies on silver leaf disease of stone and pome fruit trees (Doctoral dissertation, Adelaide, Australia), 155 pp. https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/20649/2/02whole.pdf

* Spiers AG, Brewster DT, Bus VG, Hopcroft DH (1998) Seasonal variation in susceptibility of xylem tissue of Malus, Pyrus, Prunus, and Salix species to Chondrostereum purpureum in New Zealand. Mycological Research 102(7), 881-890.
Choristoneura rosaceana (CHONRO) Host
* Chapman PJ, Lienk SE (1971) Tortricid fauna of apple in New York (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); including an account of apple's occurrence in the state, especially as a naturalized plant. Special Publication Geneva, NY, New York Agricultural Experiment Station, 122 pp.
Chrysobothris femorata (CHRBFE) Host
* EPPO (2021) EPPO Technical Document No. 1083. Pest risk analysis for Chrysobothris femorata and C. mali. EPPO, Paris. Available at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CHRBFE/documents
------- confirmed true host of Chrysobothis femorata sensu stricto

* Wellso SG & Manley GV (2007) A revision of the Chrysobothris femorata (Olivier, 1790) species group from North America, north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Zootaxa, 26(1652), 1–26.
Chrysobothris mali (CHRBMA) Host
* EPPO (2021) EPPO Technical Document No. 1083. Pest risk analysis for Chrysobothris femorata and C. mali. EPPO, Paris. Available at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CHRBMA/documents
------- confirmed true host of Chrysobothis mali

* Homan HW (2020) Pacific Flathead Borer. Retrieved from treefruit.wsu.edu/crop-protection/opm/pacific-flathead-borer/

Comstockaspis perniciosa (QUADPE) Host
* Ben-Dov Y, German V (2003) A systemic catalogue of the Diaspididae (armoured scale insects) of the world, subfamilies Aspidiotinae, Comstockiellinae and Odonaspidinae. Intercept Ltd, Andover UK, 1111 pp.
Conotrachelus nenuphar (CONHNE) Host
* Brown MW (2005) Host utilization and phenology of injury by plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in West Virginia. Journal of Entomological Science 40(2), 149–157.

* Leskey TC, Wright SE (2007) Host preference of the plum curculio. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 123(3), 217-227.

* Maier CT (1990) Native and exotic rosaceous hosts of apple, plum and quince curculio larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the northeastern United States. Environmental Entomology 83(4), 1326–1332.
Corythucha arcuata (CRTHAR) Host
* Csóka G, Hirka A, Mutun S, Glavendekić M, Mikó Á, Szőcs L, Paulin M, Eötvös CB, Gáspár C, Csepelényi M, Szénási Á, Franjević M, Gninenko Y, Dautbašić M, Muzejinović O, Zúbrik M, Netoiu C, Buzatu A, Bălăcenoiu F, Jurc M, Jurc D, Bernardinelli I, Streito JC, Avtzis D, Hrašovec B (2020), Spread and potential host range of the invasive oak lace bug [Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) – Heteroptera: Tingidae] in Eurasia. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 22: 61-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12362
------- Confirmed host.

* Torres-Miller L (1995) Additions to the West Virginia tingid fauna (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae). Insecta Mundi 9(3-4), 281-282.
Cydia pomonella (CARPPO) Host
* Wearing CH, Hansen JD, Whyte C, Miller CE, Brown J (2001) The potential for spread of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) via commercial sweet cherry fruit: a critical review and risk assessment. Crop Protection 20(6), 465-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00023-0
Cytospora mali (VALSMA) Host
Eotetranychus lewisi (EOTELE) Host
* Flechtmann CHW (1996) Rediscovery of Tetranychus abacae Baker & Pritchard, additional description and notes on South American spider mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 13: 569-578.
Epichoristodes acerbella (EPIOIO) Host
Epiphyas postvittana (TORTPO) Host
Erwinia amylovora (as Pyrus) (ERWIAM) Host
* Van der Zwet, Keil HL (1979) Fire blight: a bacterial disease of rosaceous Plants. USDA Handbook no. 510. USDA, Washington (US), 200 p.

* Zeller W (1977) Studies on fire blight in the German Federal Republic. 2. Susceptibility of woody ornamentals to Erwinia amylovora. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 29(1 ), p 1-10.
Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (EURHBR) Host
* García Morales M, Denno BD, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB (2016) ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info
------- citing original references

* Soria SJ, Gallotti BJ (1986) O margarodes da videira Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Homoptera: Margarodidae): biologia, ecologia e controle no Sul do Brasil. Embrapa, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Uva e Vinho, Bento Gonçalves, Brazil. CNPUV Circular Técnica 13. 22 pp.
Eutetranychus orientalis (EUTEOR) Host
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu stricto (EUWAWH) Host
* Engelbrecht K, Raubenheimer I, Paap T, Neethling E, Roets F (2024) Detection of Fusarium euwallaceae and its vector Euwallacea fornicatus on pear (Pyrus communis) and in deciduous fruit orchards in South Africa. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 19(1), 3 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-023-00524-z
------- able to establish breeding colonies on pear trees, but apparently at a low frequency and without causing symptoms of dieback 
Fusarium euwallaceae (FUSAEW) Host
* Engelbrecht K, Raubenheimer I, Paap T, Neethling E, Roets F (2024) Detection of Fusarium euwallaceae and its vector Euwallacea fornicatus on pear (Pyrus communis) and in deciduous fruit orchards in South Africa. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 19(1), 3 pp. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13314-023-00524-z
------- Confirmed host.
Grapholita inopinata (CYDIIN) Host
* Biosecurity New Zealand (2009) Import Risk Analysis: Pears (Pyrus bretschneideri, Pyrus pyrifolia, and Pyrus sp. nr. communis) fresh fruit from China Final. 462 pp
Grapholita inopinata (as Pyrus) (CYDIIN) Host
Grapholita molesta (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita molesta (as Pyrus) (LASPMO) Host
Grapholita prunivora (as Pyrus) (LASPPR) Host
Gymnosporangium asiaticum (GYMNAS) Host
* Yun YH, Hong SG, Rossman AY, Lee SK, Lee JK, Bae KS (2009) The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne. Mycologia 101(6), 790-809.
------- Aecial host.

* Zhao P, Qi XH, Crous PW, Duan WJ, Cai L (2020) Gymnosporangium species on Malus: species delineation, diversity and host alternation. Persoonia 45(1), 68-100.
------- Aecial host.
Gymnosporangium globosum (as Pyrus) (GYMNGL) Host
Helicoverpa zea (HELIZE) Host
* Quaintance AL, Brues CT (1905) The cotton bollworm. US Depatment of Agriculture. Bureau of entomology. Bulletin 50. 155 pp.
Homalodisca vitripennis (HOMLTR) Host
* Turner WF, Pollard HN (1959) Life histories and behavior of five insect vectors of phony peach disease. United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1188, 28 pp.
-------- Feeding host.
Hop stunt viroid (HSVD00) Host
* Hassen IF, Kummert J, Marbot S, Fakhfakh H, Marrakchi M, Jijakli MH (2004) First report of Pear blister canker viroid, Peach latent mosaic viroid, and Hop stunt viroid infecting fruit trees in Tunisia. Plant Disease 88(10), 1164.
Hyphantria cunea (as Pyrus) (HYPHCU) Host
Leucoptera malifoliella (LEUCSC) Host
* Bajec D, Rodič K, Peterlin A (2009) Wide range of host plants of pear leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella [O. Costa]). Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009, 431-434. (abst.)
Leucoptera malifoliella (as Pyrus) (LEUCSC) Host
Lymantria dispar (LYMADI) Host
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (PHENHI) Host
* Chang LWH, Miller CE (1996) Pathway Risk Assessment: Pink mealybug from the Caribbean. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 61 pp.
Malacosoma disstria (as Pyrus) (MALADI) Host
Malacosoma parallela (MALAPA) Host
Megaplatypus mutatus (PLTPMU) Host
* Giménez RA, Etiennot AE (2003) Host range of Platypus mutatus. Entomotropica 18, 89–94.

Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de plagas. Megaplatypus mutatus. https://www.sinavimo.gov.ar/plaga/megaplatypus-mutatus
Megaplatypus mutatus (as Pyrus) (PLTPMU) Host
* Allegro G, Griffo R (2008) I rischi di diffusione di Megaplatypus mutatus. L'informatore Agrario no. 13, 73-76.
Monilinia fructicola (MONIFC) Host
Monilinia fructicola (as Pyrus) (MONIFC) Host
Monilinia polystroma (MONIPO) Host
* Martini C, di Francesco A, Lantos A, Mari M (2015) First report of Asiatic brown rot (Monilinia polystroma) and brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) on pears in Italy. Plant Disease 99(4), p 556.
Naupactus leucoloma (GRAGLE) Host
* Chadwick CF (1965) Checklist of the Brachyderinae (Col. Curculionidae) occurring in Australia. Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (NSW) 2, 21-34.
Naupactus xanthographus (NAUPXA) Host
* Caballero VC (1972) Algunos aspectos de la biología y control de Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en durazneros en Chile. Rev Peru Entomol. 15(1): 190–194

* González (1989) Insectos y acaros de importancia agricola y cuarentenaria en Chile. Universidad de Chile: 310 pp
------- confirmed host (as peral)

* Sinavimo (2019) Naupactus xanthographus Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de plagas. Available at: https://www.sinavimo.gov.ar/plaga/naupactus-xanthographus
------- causing damage on buds, flower, leaves, shoots, roots.
Neofabraea malicorticis (as Pyrus) (PEZIMA) Host
Oemona hirta (OEMOHI) Host
* Lu W, Wang Q (2005) Systematics of the New Zealand longicorn beetle genus Oemona Newman with discussion of the taxonomic position of the Australian species, O. simplex White (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Zootaxa 971, 1-31.

* Plant-SyNZ. Landcare Research (NZ). Host plants of a herbivore -Oemona hirta. http://plant-synz.landcareresearch.co.nz/index.asp). Last accessed 2021-06.
Operophtera brumata (CHEIBR) Host
Orgyia leucostigma (as Pyrus) (HEMELE) Host
Parabemisia myricae (PRABMY) Host
Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVD0) Host
* El-Dougdoug Kh A (1998) Occurrence of peach latent mosaic viroid in apple (Malus domestica). Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 43(1), 21-30. Review of Plant Pathology, 78(2), abstract 1389, p 187.

* Kyriakopoulou PE, Giunchedi L, Hadidi A (2001) Peach latent mosaic and pome fruit viroids in naturally infected cultivated pear Pyrus communis and wild pear P. amygdaliformis: implications on possible origin of these viroids in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Plant Pathology 83(1), 51-62.
Pear blister canker viroid (as Pyrus) (PBCVD0) Host
Pear bud drop agent (as Pyrus) (PRBD00) Host
Phyllosticta solitaria (as Pyrus) (PHYSSL) Host
* Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY (1989) Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States, APS Press, St Paul, USA, 1252 pp.

* Wikee S, Udayanga D, Crous PW, Chukeatirote E, McKenzie EH, Bahkali AH, Dai DQ, Hyde KD (2011). Phyllosticta—an overview of current status of species recognition. Fungal Diversity 51, 43-61.
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Host
* Anonymous (1960) Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook no 165, USDA-ARS (US) 531 pp.
Phytophthora cactorum (as Pyrus) (PHYTCC) Host
Platynota stultana (PLAAST) Host
* Varela L, Elkins RB, van Steenwyk RA (2012) Agriculture. Pear Pest Management Guidelines. Omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana. UC ANR Publication 3455. https://www2.ipm.ucanr.edu/agriculture/pear/omnivorous-leafroller/
Pseudococcus calceolariae (PSECGA) Host
Pseudococcus comstocki (PSECCO) Host
* Pellizzari G, Duso C, Rainato A, Pozzebon A, Zanini G (2012) Phenology, ethology and distribution of Pseudococcus comstocki, an invasive pest in northeastern Italy. Bulletin of Insectology.65(2), 209-215.
Pseudococcus comstocki (as Pyrus) (PSECCO) Host
Rhagoletis pomonella (RHAGPO) Host
* Prokopy RJ, Bush GL (1972) Apple maggot infestation of pear. Journal of Economic Entomology 65, 597.
------- confirmed host.

* Yee WL, Norrbom AL (2017) Provisional List of Suitable Host Plants of the Apple Maggot Fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0, 20pp, in USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI)
Edition 2.0; https://coffhi.cphst.org/. 
------- confirmed host.

* Yee WL, Goughnour RB (2006)  New host records for the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Washington State.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist  82: 54–60.
------- host as 'European pear'
Saperda candida (SAPECN) Host
* Hess AD (1940) The biology and control of the round-headed apple-tree borer, Saperda candida Fabricius. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 688, 93 pp.

* Monné MA & Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/default.asp?action=show_catalog (last accessed 2021-11).
Scirtothrips dorsalis (SCITDO) Host
* López-Lima D, Tejeda-Reyes MA, Rodríguez-Málaga RD, López-Bautista E, Salinas-Castro A, Illescas-Riquelme CP (2023) New hosts, distribution, and color trap preferences of the invasive thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Mexico. Journal of Entomological Science 58(4), 400-411. https://doi.org/10.18474/JES23-11
------- reproductive host. 
Scolytus schevyrewi (as Pyrus) (SCOLSH) Host
Spodoptera eridania (PRODER) Host
* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gomez DR, Roque-Specht VF & de Barros NM (2014) Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants. Journal of Insect Science 14, 238. https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieu255
Spodoptera frugiperda (LAPHFR) Host
* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez DR, Roque-Specht VF, Sousa-Silva JC, Paula-Moraes SV, Peterson JA, Hunt T (2018) Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology 26, 286-300.
Spodoptera praefica (PRODPR) Host
* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW & Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A database of the World's lepidopteran hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts
Taphrina bullata (as Pyrus) (TAPHBU) Host
Temfrudevirus temperatum (TFDAV0) Host
* Basso MF, da Silva JC, Fajardo TV, Fontes EP, Zerbini FM (2015) A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine. Virus Research 210, 27-33.
------- as pear, cultivar Pera d'água, found on two trees
Tetranychus fijiensis (TETRFI) Host
Tetranychus mexicanus (TETRME) Host
* Paschoal A (1970) Revisão da família Tetranychidae no Brasil (Arachnida: Acarina). Anais Da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, XXVII, 457–483.
Thrips hawaiiensis (as Pyrus) (THRIHA) Host
Thrips imaginis (THRIIM) Host
Thrips palmi (THRIPL) Host
* Kalpana Tillekaratne, Edirisinghe JP, Gunatilleke CVS, Karunaratne AIP (2011) A checklist of thrips species of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Bio. Sci.) 40(2), 89-108.
Trichoferus campestris (as Pyrus) (HESOCA) Host
* Iwata R & Yamada F (1990) Notes on the biology of Hesperophanes campestris, a drywood borer in Japan. Material und Organismen 25, 305–313.
Zaprionus tuberculatus (ZAPRTU) Host
* Özbek Çatal B, Çalişkan Keçe AF, Ulusoy MR (2021) Distribution and host plants of Drosophilidae (Diptera) species detected in fruit orchards of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 26(2), 431-442. https://doi.org/10.37908/mkutbd.873838
Acrobasis pirivorella (NUMOPI) Major host
* Shutova NN (1977) [The pear pyralid]. Zashchita Rastenii 9, 38.
Anastrepha fraterculus (ANSTFR) Major host
* Baker EW (1945) Studies on the Mexican fruitfly known as Anastrepha fraterculus. Journal of Economic Entomology 38, 95–100.

* Campos RF (1960) Las moscas (Brachycera) del Ecuador. Revista Ecuatoriana Higiene y Medicina Tropical 17, 1–66.

* Garcia FRM, Norrbom AL (2011) Tephritoid flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea) and their plant hosts from the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Florida Entomologist 94, 151–157.

* Korytkowski C, Ojeda-Pena D (1970) Especies del género Anastrepha Schiner 1968 en el nor-oeste Peruano. Revista Peruana de Entomologia (Lima) 11, 32-70.

* Nasca AJ, Zamora JA, Vergara LE, Jaldo HE (1996) Hospederos de moscas de los frutos en el Valle de Antinaco-Los Colorados, Provincia de La Rioja, República Argentina. Revista de Investigación 10, 19–24.

* Raga A, Souza-Filho MFD, Machado RA, Sato ME, Siloto RC (2011) Host ranges and infestation indices of fruit flies (Tephritidae) and lance flies (Lonchaeidae) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Florida Entomologist 94, 787–794.

* Souza-Filho MF, Raga A, Zucchi RA (2000) Moscas-das-frutas nos estados brasileiros: São Paulo. In : Moscas-das-frutas de importância econômica no Brasil. Conhecimento básico e aplicado, A. Malavasi & R. A. Zucchi (eds.) 277–283. Holos Ed, Riberão Preto, Brazil.

* Wille TJE (1952) Entomología Agrícola del Perú. Dirección General de Agricultura, Lima, 543 pp.
Anoplophora chinensis (as Pyrus) (ANOLCN) Major host
* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Anthonomus piri (ANTHPY) Major host
Apriona cinerea (APRICI) Major host
* Singh P, Prasad G (1985) Poplar stem borer, Apriona cinerea Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) its biology, ecology and control. Indian
Forester 111(7), 517-524.
Cacopsylla pyri (PSYLPI) Major host
'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri' (PHYPPY) Major host
* Del Serrone P, La Starza S, Krystai L, Kölber M, Barba M (1998) Occurrence of apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas in diseased pear trees in Hungary. Journal of Plant Pathology 80, 53–58.

* Marcone C, Pierro R, Tiwari AK, Rao GP (2022) Major phytoplasma disease of temperate fruit trees. Agrica 11, 20-31.

* Seemüller E & Schneider B (2004) 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum', the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54, 1217-1226. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02823-0

* Schneider H (1970) Graft transmission and host range of the pear decline causal agent. Phytopathology 60, 204-207.
Cytospora ceratosperma (VALSCE) Major host
Erwinia amylovora (ERWIAM) Major host
* Bobev SG, Maes M, van Vaerenbergh J, Tahzima R (2010) Fire blight spread in Bulgaria and characteristics of the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Acta Horticulturae no. 896, 133-140.

* Giorgi S, Scortichini M (2005) Molecular characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants through RFLP analysis and sequencing of hrpN and dspA/E genes. Plant Pathology 54, 789-798.
Gymnosporangium sabinae (GYMNFU) Major host
Halyomorpha halys (HALYHA) Major host
Hyphantria cunea (HYPHCU) Major host
Monilinia fructigena (MONIFG) Major host
Neofabraea vagabunda (as Pyrus) (PEZIAL) Major host
Neonectria ditissima (as Pyrus) (NECTGA) Major host
Orgyia leucostigma (HEMELE) Major host
* Belton EM (1988) Lepidoptera on fruit crops in Canada, Simon Fraser University, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Pest Management Program, Burnaby, BC. 105 pp.

* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp.

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW & Hernández LM (2010) HOST - A database of the world's Lepidopteran hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. https://www.nhm.ac.uk (Accessed on 7 December 2020 and 21 March 2021)
Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVD0) Major host
Pear bud drop agent (PRBD00) Major host
Pseudococcus viburni (PSECOB) Major host
Venturia nashicola (VENTNA) Non-host
European pear (Pyrus communis) is not a host of V. nashicola.

* EFSA (2017), EFSA Panel on Plant Health, Jeger M, Bragard C, Caffier D, Candresse T, Chatzivassiliou E, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Gilioli G, Gregoire J-C, Jaques Miret JA, MacLeod A, Navajas Navarro Maria, Niere B, Parnell S, Potting R, Rafoss T, Urek G, Van Bruggen A, Van der Werf W, West J, Winter S, Gonzalez-Dominguez E, Vicent A, Vloutoglou I, Bottex B and Rossi V, Scientific Opinion on pest categorisation of Venturia nashicola. EFSA Journal 2017;15(11):5034, 22 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5034

* Ishii H, Yanase H (2000) Venturia nashicola, the scab fungus of Japanese and Chinese pears: a species distinct from V. pirina. Mycological Research 104, 755-759.

* Tanaka S, Yamamoto S (1964) Studies on pear scab. II. Taxonomy of the causal fungus of Japanese pear scab. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 29, 128-136.