EPPO Global Database

Pseudotsuga menziesii(PSTME)

Pests

Organism Type
Melampsora medusae (MELMME) Alternate
* Molnar AC, Sivak B (1964) Melampsora infection of pine in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 42, 145-158.
------- aecial hosts of Melampsora medusae with reported infection in nature
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (MELMMD) Alternate
* Molnar AC, Sivak B (1964) Melampsora infection of pine in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 42, 145-158.
------- aecial hosts of Melampsora medusae with reported infection in nature
Choristoneura rosaceana (CHONRO) Doubtful host
* Powell JA (2006) Database of Lepidoptera rearing lots, 1960-2005. University of California Berkeley (US).
Dendrolimus sibiricus (DENDSI) Experimental
* Kirichenko NI, Baranchikov YN, Vidal S (2009) Host plant preference and performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) on European coniferous species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11, 247-254.
------- Artificial / potential highly suitable host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2008) Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe – possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae). EPPO Bulletin 38, 259-263.
------- Artificial / potential highly suitable host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2011) Larval performances and life cycle completion of the Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), on potential host plants in Europe: a laboratory study on potted trees. European Journal of Forest Research 130(6), 1067-1074.
------- Artificial / potential highly suitable host in Europe (laboratory trial).
Phytophthora lateralis (PHYTLA) Experimental
* Pratt RG, Roth LF, Hansen EM & Ostrofsky WD (1976) Identity and pathogenicity of species of Phytophthora causing root rot of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. Phytopathology 66, 710–71
Acleris gloverana (ACLRGL) Host
Allantophomopsiella pseudotsugae (POTECO) Host
Allantophomopsiella pseudotsugae (as Pseudotsuga) (POTECO) Host
Arceuthobium tsugense (ARETS) Host
* Hawksworth FG, Wiens D (1996) Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. USDA - Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 709, 429 pp.
------- Rare host for A. tsugense subsp. tsugense.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (BURSXY) Host
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (as Pseudotsuga) (BURSXY) Host
Chionaspis pinifoliae (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
* Normark BB, Okusu A, Morse GE, Peterson DA, Itioka T & Schneider SA (2019) Phylogeny and classification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae). Zootaxa 4616(1), 1–98.
* Shour MH & Schuder DL (1987) Host range and geographic distribution of Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley and C. pinifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Indiana Academy of Science 96, 297–304.
Choristoneura fumiferana (CHONFU) Host
Coniferiporia weirii (as Pinaceae) (INONWE) Host
Dendroctonus micans (DENCMI) Host
* Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Dynamics of forest insect populations (Ed. by Berryman A) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. pp. 455-478.
Dothistroma septosporum (SCIRPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Slightly susceptible.

* Ortíz de Urbina E, Mesanza N, Aragonés A, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Boqué R, Patten C, Aitken J, Iturritxa E (2017) Emerging needle blight diseases in Atlantic Pinus ecosystems of Spain. Forests 8(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010018
Fusarium circinatum (GIBBCI) Host
* Drenkhan R, Ganley B, Martín-García J, Vahalík P, Adamson K, Adamčíková K, Ahumada R, Blank L et al. (2020) Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker. Forests 11(7), 724.
------- Isolated records.

* Gordon TR, Kirkpatrick SC, Aegerter BJ, Wood DL, Storer AJ (2006) Susceptibility of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to pitch canker, caused by Gibberella circinata (anamorph = Fusarium circinatum). Plant Pathology 55, 231-237.
-------- In experiments, majority of tested trees were relatively resistant but some were clearly susceptible (short lesions).

* Gordon TR, Storer AJ, Okamoto D (1996) The population structure of the pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, in California. Mycological Research 100, 850-854.
------- In California (US), affected trees showed branch dieback.

* Vogler D R, Gordon T R, Aegerter B J, Kirkpatrick S C, Lunak G A, Stover P, Violett P (2004) First report of the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum) in the Sierra Nevada of California. Plant Disease 88(7), 772.
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (GNAHSU) Host
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (as Pinaceae) (GNAHSU) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (GREMAB) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (as Pseudotsuga) (GREMAB) Host
Heterobasidion irregulare (HETEIR) Host
* Garbelotto M, Gonthier P (2013) Biology, Epidemiology, and Control of Heterobasidion Species Worldwide. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2013. 51:39–59
------ confirmed host
Heterobasidion irregulare (as Pseudotsuga) (HETEIR) Host
Ips duplicatus (IPSXDU) Host
* Kašák J, Foit J (2015) Double-spined bark beetle (Ips duplicatus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a new host – Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) – Short Communication. Journal of Forest Science 61(6), 274-276.
Ips typographus (IPSXTY) Host
Leptoglossus occidentalis (as Pseudotsuga) (LEPLOC) Host
Monochamus maculosus (MONCMC) Host
Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication no. 1339, 654 pp.
Monochamus notatus (MONCNO) Host
* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus obtusus (MONCOB) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Keen FP (1952) Insect Enemies of Western Forests. Miscellaneous Publication no. 273. USDA, 209 pp.

* Linsley EG, Chemsak JA (1984) The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Publications in Entomology 102, 258 pp.

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
------- Monochamus obtusus obtusus.
Monochamus scutellatus (MONCST) Host
* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Neodiprion abietis (NEODAB) Host
* Sánchez-Martínez G, González-Gaona E, López-Martínez V, Espinosa-Zaragoza S, López-Baez O, Sanzón-Gómez D, Pérez-De la O NB (2022) Climatic suitability and distribution overlap of sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) and threatened populations of Pinaceae. Forests 13, 1067. https://doi.org/10.3390/f1307106
------- Recorded as a host in Mexico.
Neofusicoccum laricinum (GUIGLA) Host
* Ito K (1963) Shoot blight of larch. A destructive disease in larch plantations of Japan I. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experimental Station Tokyo 159, 89-103.
------- Experimental host.

* Sato K, Shouji T (1962) Ditto V (Preliminary report). Pathogenicity of Guignardia laricina, the causal fungus of the disease. Transactions of the 73rd Annual Meeting of the  Japanese Forestry Society, 217-219 (in Japanese).
------- Experimental host.

* Sato K, Yokozawa Y, Shoji T (1963) Studies on the shoot blight disease of larch. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experimental Station Tokyo 156, 85–137.
------- Confirmed host.
Neonectria neomacrospora (NECTMA) Host
* Mantiri FR, Samuels GJ, Rahe JE, Honda BM (2001) Phylogenetic relationships in Neonectria species having Cylindrocarpon anamorphs inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany 79, 334-340.
Nothophaeocryptopus gaeumannii (PHARGA) Host
* Stone JK, Capitano BR, Kerrigan JL (2008) The histopathology of Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii on Douglas-fir needles. Mycologia 100(3), 431-444
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Host
* Anonymous (1960) Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook no 165, USDA-ARS (US) 531 pp.
Phytophthora cinnamomi (as Pinaceae) (PHYTCN) Host
Phytophthora cryptogea (PHYTCR) Host
Phytophthora pluvialis (PHYTUV) Host
* Reeser P, Sutton W, Hansen E (2013) Phytophthora pluvialis, a new species from mixed tanoak-Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon, U.S.A. North American Fungi 8(7), 1-8.
------- confirmed host.

* Pérez‐Sierra A, Chitty R, Eacock A, Jones B, Biddle M, Crampton M, Lewis A, Olivieri L, Webber JF (2022) First report of Phytophthora pluvialis in Europe causing resinous cankers on western hemlock. New Disease Reports 45(1):e12064. https://doi.org/10.1002/ndr2.12064
Phytophthora ramorum (PHYTRA) Host
* Garbelotto M & Rizzo DM (2002) Report on coast redwood and Douglas-fir as host for Phytophthora ramorum. http://www.suddenoakdeath.org/pdf/MGBinder.Redwoodreport.9.02.pdf
Pissodes fasciatus (PISOFA) Host
* Deyrup MA (1978) Notes on the biology of Pissodes fasciatus LeConte and its insect associates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 54, 103-106.

* Hopkins AD (1911) Technical papers on miscellaneous forest insects. I. Contributions toward a monograph of the bark-weevils of the genus Pissodes. Technical Series No. 20, Part I. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, DC, x + 68 pp + 22 plates.

* Jacobi WR (1992) Potential insect vectors of black stain root disease pathogen on southern Vancouver Island. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 89, 54-56.

* Miller DR, Heppner D (1999) Attraction of Pissodes affinis and P. fasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to pityol and a-pinene in a coastal stand of western white pine and Douglas-fir. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 99, 73-76.

* Witkosky JJ (1989) Root beetles, stand disturbance, and management of black-stain root disease in plantations of Douglas fir. In Insects affecting reforestation: biology and damage (eds Alfaro R & Glover SG), p. 58-70. Forestry Canada, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada).

* Witkosky JJ, Hansen EM (1985) Root-colonizing insects recovered from Douglas-fir in various stages of decline due to black-stain root disease. Phytopathology 75, 399-402.

* Wikosky JJ, Schowalter TD, Hansen EM (1986) The influence of time of precommercial thinning on the colonization of Douglas-fir by three species of root-colonizing insects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 16, 745-749.

* Witkosky JJ, Schowalter TD, Hansen EM (1986) Hylastes nigrinus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Pissodes fasciatus and Steremnius carinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as vectors of black-stain root disease of Douglas-fir. Environmental Entomology 15, 1090-1095.
Pissodes strobi (PISOST) Host
* Masiuk M (2001) White pine weevil. Woody ornamentals IPM Fact Sheets. The Pennsylvania State University. 2 pp.
Sirex noctilio (as Pseudotsuga) (SIRXNO) Host
Xylosandrus germanus (XYLBGE) Host
Arceuthobium douglasii (AREDO) Major host
Choristoneura occidentalis occidentalis (ARCHOC) Major host
* Brunet B, Sperling FAH (2013) Identification and ecological characterisation of Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Canadian Entomologist 145, 521-528.

* Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA , Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication no. 1339, 654 pp.

* Nealis V (2005) Diapause and voltinism in western and 2-year cycle spruce budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and their hybrid progeny. The Canadian Entomologist 137, 584-597.
Coniferiporia weirii (INONWE) Major host
Contarinia pseudotsugae (CONTPS) Major host
* Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA-Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication no. 273, 654 pp.
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (DENCPS) Major host
* Freeman MB, Labarge A, Tobin PC (2020) Phenology of Douglas-Fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Role in Douglas-Fir Mortality in Western Washington.  Environmental Entomology, 49(1), 246–254, https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz146
Grosmannia wageneri (LEPGWA) Major host
Leptoglossus occidentalis (LEPLOC) Major host
Orgyia pseudotsugata (ORGYPS) Major host