EPPO Global Database

Pinus sylvestris(PIUSI)

Pests

Organism Type
Melampsora medusae (as Pinus) (MELMME) Alternate
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (as Pinus) (MELMMD) Alternate
Arceuthobium americanum (as Pinus) (AREAM) Host
Arceuthobium campylopodum (as Pinus) (ARECP) Host
Arceuthobium laricis (as Pinus) (ARELA) Host
Arceuthobium occidentale (as Pinus) (AREOC) Host
Arceuthobium pusillum (as Pinus) (AREPU) Host
Arceuthobium vaginatum (as Pinus) (AREVA) Host
Atropellis pinicola (ATRPPC) Host
Atropellis pinicola (as Pinus) (ATRPPC) Host
Atropellis piniphila (as Pinus) (ATRPPP) Host
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (as Pinus) (BURSXY) Host
Cacopsylla melanoneura (PSYLME) Host
Chionaspis pinifoliae (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
* Shour MH & Schuder DL (1987) Host range and geographic distribution of Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley and C. pinifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Indiana Academy of Science 96, 297–304.
Chionaspis pinifoliae (as Pinus) (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
------- Pinus maximartinezii, Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa (as Pinus washoensis).
Choristoneura fumiferana (as Pinus) (CHONFU) Host
Coniferiporia weirii (as Pinaceae) (INONWE) Host
Cronartium coleosporioides (as Pinus) (CRONCL) Host
Cronartium comandrae (CRONCO) Host
Cronartium comandrae (as Pinus) (CRONCO) Host
Cronartium comptoniae (CRONCP) Host
Cronartium comptoniae (as Pinus) (CRONCP) Host
Cronartium flaccidum (as Pinus) (CRONFL) Host
Cronartium fusiforme (as Pinus) (CRONFU) Host
Cronartium harknessii (ENDCHA) Host
Cronartium harknessii (as Pinus) (ENDCHA) Host
Cronartium himalayense (as Pinus) (CRONHI) Host
Cronartium kamtschaticum (as Pinus) (CRONKA) Host
Cronartium quercuum (CRONQU) Host
Cronartium quercuum (as Pinus) (CRONQU) Host
Dendroctonus adjunctus (as Pinus) (DENCAD) Host
Dendroctonus brevicomis (as Pinus) (DENCBR) Host
Dendroctonus frontalis (DENCFR) Host
* Dodds KJ, Aoki CF, Arango-Velez A, Cancelliere J, D’Amato AW, DiGirolomo MF & Rabaglia RJ (2018) Expansion of southern pine beetle into northeastern forests: Management and impact of a primary bark beetle in a new region. Journal of Forestry, 116(2), 178–191. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvx009
------- recorded as hosts in Connecticut.
Dendroctonus frontalis (as Pinus) (DENCFR) Host
* Hain FP, Duehl AJ, Gardener MJ, Payne TL (2011) Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13-24. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39019
------- "The SPB infests and kills all pine species in its range"
Dendroctonus micans (DENCMI) Host
* Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Dynamics of forest insect populations (Ed. by Berryman A) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. pp. 455-478.

* Voolma K (1993) The occurrence of the great European spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans Kug. (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), as a pest of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L. Metsanduslikud Uurimused 26, 113-124.
Dendroctonus ponderosae (as Pinus) (DENCPO) Host
Dendroctonus valens (DENCVA) Host
* Wood SL (1963) A revision of the bark beetle genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Great Basin Naturalist 23, 76-82.

* Yan ZL, Sun JH, Don O, Zhang ZN (2005) The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Scolytidae): an exotic invasive pest of pine in China. Biodiversity and Conservation 14 (7), 1735-1760.
Dendrolimus sibiricus (DENDSI) Host
* Epova VI (1999) [The list of chewing insects of Baikal Siberia], Nauka, Novosibirsk (RU) (in Russian).
------- Incidental host in Siberia; noticable damage was recorded in Baikal Siberia in 1990s (field observation).

* Kirichenko NI, Baranchikov YN (2007) Appropriateness on needles of different conifer species for the feeding and growth of larvae from two populations of the Siberian moth. Russian Journal of Ecology [Ekologiya] 38, 216-221.

* Kirichenko NI, Baranchikov YN, Vidal S (2009) Host plant preference and performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) on European coniferous species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11, 247-254.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2008) Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe – possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae). EPPO Bulletin 38, 259-263.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2011) Larval performances and life cycle completion of the Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), on potential host plants in Europe: a laboratory study on potted trees. European Journal of Forest Research 130(6), 1067-1074.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Rozhkov AS (1963) [Dendrolimus sibiricus.] Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow (RU) (in Russian),
Dendrolimus spectabilis (as Pinus) (DENDSC) Host
Diabrotica virgifera zeae (as Pinus) (DIABVZ) Host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 615 pp.
------- Adult host.
Dothistroma pini (DOTSPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Varying from slightly to highly susceptible.
Dothistroma septosporum (SCIRPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Varying from slightly to highly susceptible.

* Markovskaja S, Raitelaitytė K, Kačergius A, Kolmakov P, Vasilevich V (2020) Occurrence of Dothistroma needle blight in Lithuania and Belarus: The risk posed to native Scots Pine forests. Forest Pathology, e12626. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12626
------- Most common host in Belarus and Lithuania with varying susceptibility.

* Ortíz de Urbina E, Mesanza N, Aragonés A, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Boqué R, Patten C, Aitken J, Iturritxa E (2017) Emerging needle blight diseases in Atlantic Pinus ecosystems of Spain. Forests 8, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010018
------- Confirmed host.
Elasmopalpus lignosellus (as Pinus) (ELASLI) Host
* Dixon WN (1982) Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services no 236, 2 pp.
Epiphyas postvittana (as Pinus) (TORTPO) Host
Fusarium circinatum (GIBBCI) Host
* Drenkhan R, Ganley B, Martín-García J, Vahalík P, Adamson K, Adamčíková K, Ahumada R, Blank L et al. (2020) Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker. Forests 11(7), 724. 

* Iturritxa E, Ganley RJ, Raposo R, Garcia-Serna I, Mesanza N, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR (2013) Resistance levels of Spanish conifers against Fusarium circinatum and Diplodia pinea. Forest Pathology. doi: 10.1111/efp.12061
------- Moderate susceptibility during inoculation experiments.
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (as Pinaceae) (GNAHSU) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (as Pinus) (GREMAB) Host
Grosmannia wageneri (as Pinus) (LEPGWA) Host
Heterobasidion irregulare (as Pinus) (HETEIR) Host
Hylurgus ligniperda (as Pinus) (HYLGLI) Host
Ips amitinus (as Pinus) (IPSXAM) Host
Ips calligraphus (as Pinus) (IPSXCA) Host
Ips confusus (as Pinus) (IPSXCO) Host
Ips duplicatus (IPSXDU) Host
* Holuša J, Grodzki W (2008) Occurrence of Ips duplicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) on pines (Pinus sp.) in the Czech Republic and southern Poland–Short communication. Journal of Forest Science 54(5), 234-236.
Ips hauseri (as Pinus) (IPSXHA) Host
* Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov V, Savard K (2019) Dichotomous and matrix-based keys to the Ips bark beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 38, 234 pp. http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/dcgs_38/factsheets/Ips_hauseri.pdf
Ips lecontei (as Pinus) (IPSXLE) Host
Ips pini (as Pinus) (IPSXPI) Host
Ips plastographus (as Pinus) (IPSXPL) Host
Ips sexdentatus (IPSXSE) Host
* EFSA (2017) Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Ips sexdentatus. EFSA Journal 15(11),4999, 28 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5000
------ Pinus sylvestris and  Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica.

* Izhevsky SS, Nikitsky NB, Volkov OG, Dolgin MM (2005) [Illustrated guide to coleopteran - xylophagous pests of forests and timber of Russia]. Tula, Grif and Co, 220 pp (in Russian).

* Roganovic D (2013) Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scotylidae) of Montenegro. Agriculture & Forestry 59(3), 109-117.

* Romero SL, Ochoa PR, Bilbao JCI, Lafuente AG (2007) Los escolítidos de las coníferas del País Vasco. Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco, 189 pp.

* Sarikaya O, Avci M (2011) Bark beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) of the coniferous forests in the Mediterranean region of Western Turkey, with a new record for Turkish fauna. Turkish Journal of Zoology 35(1), 33-47.

* Wang X, Xu L, Zhan G, Li B, Chang H, Hu M, Qin H (2011) [Effect of X-ray (9 MeV) irradiation on the development and propagation of Ips sexdentatus]. Plant Quarantine (Shanghai), 25, 28–31 (in Chinese).
------ Pinus sylvestris and  Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica.
Ips subelongatus (IPSXFA) Host
* Wang Z, Liu Y, Wang H,  Meng X, Liu X, Decock C, Zhang X, Lu Q (2020) Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Ips subelongatus, including eight new species from northeastern China. IMA Fungus 11, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43008-019-0025-3
-------- As Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica.
Ips typographus (IPSXTY) Host
Lecanosticta acicola (SCIRAC) Host
* Adamson K, Laas M, Drenkhan R, Hanso M (2018) Quarantine pathogen Lecanosticta acicola, observed at its jump from an exotic host to the native Scots pine in Estonia. Baltic Forestry 24, 36– 41.

* Adamčíková K, Jánošíková Z, Adamčík S, Ostrovský R, Pastirčáková K, Kobza M, Ondrušková E (2021) Host range, genetic variability, and mating types of Lecanosticta acicola in Slovakia. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 36(5), 325-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2021.1941236

* Janoušek J, Wingfield MJ, Marmolejo Monsivais JG, Jankovský L, Stauffer C, Konečný A, Barnes I (2016) Genetic analyses suggest separate introductions of the pine pathogen Lecanosticta acicola into Europe. Phytopathology 106(11), 1413-1425.

* Oskay F, Laas M, Mullett M, Lehtijärvi A, Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi HT, Woodward S, Drenkhan R (2020) First report of Lecanosticta acicola on pine and non-pine hosts in Turkey. Forest Pathology 50, e12654. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12654

* van der Nest A, Wingfield MJ, Janoušek J, Barnes I (2019) Lecanosticta acicola: a growing threat to expanding global pine forests and plantations. Molecular Plant Pathology 20(10), 1327-1364. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12853
Leptoglossus occidentalis (as Pinus) (LEPLOC) Host
Marchalina hellenica (MARCHE) Host
* Ülgentürk S, Ercan C, Yaşar B, Kaydan MB (2022) Checklist of Turkish Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternorryncha) species. Trakya University Journal of Natural Sciences 23(Special Issue), S113-S129. https://doi.org/10.23902/trkjnat.1123152
Megaplatypus mutatus (as Pinus) (PLTPMU) Host
* Giménez RA, Etiennot AE (2003) Host range of Platypus mutatus. Entomotropica 18, 89–94.
Monochamus carolinensis (as Pinus) (MONCCA) Host
Monochamus maculosus (as Pinus) (MONCMC) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
Monochamus nitens (as Pinus) (MONCNI) Host
Monochamus obtusus (as Pinus) (MONCOB) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Keen FP (1952) Insect Enemies of Western Forests. Miscellaneous Publication no. 273. USDA, 209 pp.
Monochamus saltuarius (as Pinus) (MONCSL) Host
Monochamus scutellatus (as Pinus) (MONCST) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus sutor (as Pinus) (MONCSU) Host
Monochamus titillator (as Pinus) (MONCTI) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Duffy EAJ (1960) A monograph of the immature stages of neotropical timber beetles. London: British Museum (Natural History), 327 pp.

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus urussovi (as Pinus) (MONCUR) Host
Orgyia leucostigma (as Pinus) (HEMELE) Host
* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts.
Phytophthora cinnamomi (as Pinaceae) (PHYTCN) Host
Pissodes castaneus (as Pinus) (PISONO) Host
Pissodes nemorensis (PISONE) Host
* Rieske LK, Raffa KF (1993) Use of Ethanol-and-Turpentine-Baited Flight Traps to Monitor Pissodes Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Christmas Tree Plantations. The Great Lakes Entomologist 26(2), 155-160.
Pissodes strobi (PISOST) Host
* Humble LM, Humphreys N, Van Sickle GA (1994) Distribution and hosts of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), in Canada. pp. 68-75. In AIfaro RI, Kiss G, Fraser RG (eds) The white pine weevil: biology, damage and management. Proceedings of a symposium held January 19-21, 1994 in Richmond, British Columbia. FRDA Report No. 226. 75 pp.
------- breeding host

* Masiuk M (2001) White pine weevil. Woody ornamentals IPM Fact Sheets. The Pennsylvania State University. 2 pp.
Polygraphus proximus (POLGPR) Host
* Kerchev (2014) Ecology of Four Eyed Fir Bark Beetle Polygraphus proximus Blandford (Coleoptera; Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in the West Siberian Region of Invasion. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 2014, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 176–185. DOI: 10.1134/S2075111714030072
-------- observed once on a storm-damaged branch of Pinus sylvestris
Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae (CERSPD) Host
* Ivory MH (1994) Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology 43 (3), 511-518.
Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae (as Pinus) (CERSPD) Host
* Ivory MH (1994) Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology 43 (3), 511-518.
Rhyacionia buoliana (as Pinus) (EVETBU) Host
Rotylenchus buxophilus (as Pinus) (HELYBU) Host
Sirex ermak (as Pinus) (SIRXER) Host
Sirex noctilio (as Pinus) (SIRXNO) Host
Tetropium gracilicorne (as Pinus) (TETOGR) Host
Thaumetopoea processionea (as Pinus) (THAUPR) Host
* Gomez-Bustillo MR (1978) Los Thaumetopoeidae de la Peninsula Iberica: nociones de sistematica, ecologica e importancia economica de la famila. Revista de Lepidopterologia 5, 283-290; 6, 113- 124. 
Toumeyella parvicornis (TOUMPA) Host
* Malumphy C, Hamilton MA, Manco BN, Green PW, Sanchez MD, Corcoran M, Salamanca E (2012) Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae), causing severe decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Florida Entomologist 95(1), 113-119.
Trichoferus campestris (as Pinus) (HESOCA) Host
* CAPS (2019) Trichoferus campestris. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey pest datasheets. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3869
------- Living host.
Trioza apicalis (TRIZAP) Host
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (as Pinus) (TYLRCL) Host
Xylosandrus compactus (as Pinus) (XYLSCO) Host
Xylosandrus germanus (XYLBGE) Host
Arceuthobium pini (AREPI) Major host
Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (as Pinus) (BURSMU) Major host
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (BURSXY) Major host
* Dropkin VH, Foudin AS (1979) Report of the occurrence of Bursaphelenchus lignicolus-induced pine wilt disease in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter 63(11), 904-905.

* Dropkin VH, Foudin A, Kondo E, Linit M, Smith M, Robbins K (1981) Pinewood nematode: a threat to US forests? Plant Disease 65(12), 1022-1027.

* Malek RB, Appleby JE (1984) Epidemiology of pine wilt in Illinois. Plant Disease 68(3), 180-186.
Cronartium flaccidum (CRONFL) Major host
Dendrolimus pini (DENDPI) Major host
Gremmeniella abietina (GREMAB) Major host
Heterobasidion irregulare (HETEIR) Major host
Ips amitinus (IPSXAM) Major host
* Pavlovskij EN (1955) Vrediteli lesa [Forest pests]. Isd. Akad. Nauk SSSR Moskva [in Russian]. 

* Witrylak W (2008) Studies of the biology, ecology, phenology, and economic importance of Ips amitinus (Eichh.) (Col., Scolytidae) in experimental forests of Krynica (Beskid Sadecki, southern Poland). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Silvarum Colendarum Ratio et Industria Lignaria, 7 (1), 75-92.
Ips hauseri (IPSXHA) Major host
* Lynch AM, Mukhamadiev NS, O’Connor CD, Panyushkina IP, Ashikbaev NA, Sagitov AO (2019) Tree-ring reconstruction of bark beetle disturbances in the Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey. Forests of Southeast Kazakhstan. Forests 10, 912. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10100912 

* Orlinski AD (2006) Outcomes of the EPPO project on quarantine pests for forestry. EPPO Bulletin 36, 497-511.

* Prutenskii DI, Romanenko KE (1954) [Ips hauseri. Its role and importance for the death of forests of Picea schrenkiana and Pinus sylvestris in Kirgizia]. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Botany & Plant Industry, Izdatel’stvo Kirgizskogo Otdeleniya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Frunze (KG), 1, 177–191 (in Russian).
Leptoglossus occidentalis (LEPLOC) Major host
Monochamus galloprovincialis (MONCGA) Major host
Monochamus galloprovincialis (as Pinus) (MONCGA) Major host
Monochamus sutor (MONCSU) Major host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Pissodes castaneus (PISONO) Major host
Rhyacionia buoliana (EVETBU) Major host
Tetropium gracilicorne (TETOGR) Major host
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (THAUPI) Major host
* Démolin G (1969) Comportement des adultes de Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. Dispersion spatiale, importance économique. Annales des Sciences Forestières 26, 81-102.