EPPO Global Database

Pinus contorta(PIUCN)

Pests

Organism Type
Melampsora medusae (MELMME) Alternate
* Ziller WG (1974) The tree rusts of western Canada. Forest Service, British Columbia, Canada, Publications No. 1329, pp. 144-147. Forest Service, British Columbia, Canada.
------- aecial hosts of Melampsora medusae with reported infection in nature
Melampsora medusae (as Pinus) (MELMME) Alternate
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (MELMMD) Alternate
* Ziller WG (1974) The tree rusts of western Canada. Forest Service, British Columbia, Canada, Publications No. 1329, pp. 144-147. Forest Service, British Columbia, Canada.
------- aecial hosts of Melampsora medusae with reported infection in nature
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (as Pinus) (MELMMD) Alternate
Arceuthobium americanum (as Pinus) (AREAM) Host
Arceuthobium campylopodum (as Pinus) (ARECP) Host
Arceuthobium laricis (as Pinus) (ARELA) Host
Arceuthobium occidentale (as Pinus) (AREOC) Host
Arceuthobium pusillum (as Pinus) (AREPU) Host
Arceuthobium vaginatum (as Pinus) (AREVA) Host
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (as Pinus) (BURSXY) Host
Chionaspis pinifoliae (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Coleman GA (1903) Coccidae of the Coniferae, with the descriptions of ten new species from California. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 11(2), 61–85.
*  Liu T (1987) Biosystematics of the genus Chionaspis (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae) of North America, with emphasis on polymorphism. Masters Theses. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 305 p.
* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.; 
* Normark BB, Okusu A, Morse GE, Peterson DA, Itioka T & Schneider SA (2019) Phylogeny and classification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae). Zootaxa 4616(1), 1–98.
Chionaspis pinifoliae (as Pinus) (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
------- Pinus maximartinezii, Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa (as Pinus washoensis).
Choristoneura fumiferana (as Pinus) (CHONFU) Host
Choristoneura lambertiana (TORTLA) Host
* Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA , Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication no. 1339, 654 pp.
Choristoneura pinus pinus (CHONPI) Host
* Robson JRM, Conciatori F, Tardif JC, Knowles K (2015) Tree-ring response of jack pine and scots pine to budworm defoliation in central Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 347, 83-95.
Cinara curvipes (TODOCU) Host
Coniferiporia sulphurascens (PHELSU) Host
* Leal I, Bergeron MJ, Feau N, Tsui CKM, Foord B, Pellow K, Hamelin RC & Sturrock RN (2019) Cryptic speciation in western North America and Eastern Eurasia of the pathogens responsible for laminated root rot. Phytopathology 109(3), 456–468. https://doi:10.1094/PHYTO-12-17-0399-R
Cronartium coleosporioides (as Pinus) (CRONCL) Host
Cronartium comandrae (as Pinus) (CRONCO) Host
Cronartium comptoniae (as Pinus) (CRONCP) Host
Cronartium flaccidum (as Pinus) (CRONFL) Host
Cronartium fusiforme (CRONFU) Host
Cronartium fusiforme (as Pinus) (CRONFU) Host
Cronartium harknessii (as Pinus) (ENDCHA) Host
Cronartium himalayense (as Pinus) (CRONHI) Host
Cronartium kamtschaticum (as Pinus) (CRONKA) Host
Cronartium quercuum (as Pinus) (CRONQU) Host
Dendroctonus adjunctus (as Pinus) (DENCAD) Host
Dendroctonus brevicomis (as Pinus) (DENCBR) Host
Dendroctonus frontalis (as Pinus) (DENCFR) Host
* Hain FP, Duehl AJ, Gardener MJ, Payne TL (2011) Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13-24. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39019
------- "The SPB infests and kills all pine species in its range"
Dendroctonus micans (DENCMI) Host
* Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Dynamics of forest insect populations (Ed. by Berryman A) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. pp. 455-478.
Dendroctonus ponderosae (as Pinus) (DENCPO) Host
Dendrolimus spectabilis (as Pinus) (DENDSC) Host
Diabrotica virgifera zeae (as Pinus) (DIABVZ) Host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 615 pp.
------- Adult host.
Dothistroma septosporum (SCIRPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Varying from slightly to highly susceptible.
Elasmopalpus lignosellus (as Pinus) (ELASLI) Host
* Dixon WN (1982) Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services no 236, 2 pp.
Epiphyas postvittana (as Pinus) (TORTPO) Host
Fusarium circinatum (GIBBCI) Host
* Drenkhan R, Ganley B, Martín-García J, Vahalík P, Adamson K, Adamčíková K, Ahumada R, Blank L et al. (2020) Global geographic distribution and host range of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker. Forests 11(7), 724.

* Gordon TR, Storer AJ, Wood DL (2001) The pitch canker epidemics in California. Plant Disease, 85(11), 1128-1139.
-------- As Pinus contorta subsp. contorta.
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (as Pinaceae) (GNAHSU) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (GREMAB) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (as Pinus) (GREMAB) Host
Grosmannia wageneri (LEPGWA) Host
Grosmannia wageneri (as Pinus) (LEPGWA) Host
Heterobasidion irregulare (as Pinus) (HETEIR) Host
Hylurgus ligniperda (as Pinus) (HYLGLI) Host
Ips amitinus (as Pinus) (IPSXAM) Host
Ips calligraphus (as Pinus) (IPSXCA) Host
Ips confusus (as Pinus) (IPSXCO) Host
Ips hauseri (as Pinus) (IPSXHA) Host
* Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov V, Savard K (2019) Dichotomous and matrix-based keys to the Ips bark beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 38, 234 pp. http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/dcgs_38/factsheets/Ips_hauseri.pdf
Ips lecontei (as Pinus) (IPSXLE) Host
Ips pini (IPSXPI) Host
Ips pini (as Pinus) (IPSXPI) Host
Ips plastographus (IPSXPL) Host
Ips plastographus (as Pinus) (IPSXPL) Host
Lecanosticta acicola (SCIRAC) Host
* Siggers PV (1944) The brown spot needle blight of pine seedlings. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Technical Bulletin, 870, 1-6.
Leptoglossus occidentalis (as Pinus) (LEPLOC) Host
Megaplatypus mutatus (as Pinus) (PLTPMU) Host
* Giménez RA, Etiennot AE (2003) Host range of Platypus mutatus. Entomotropica 18, 89–94.
Monochamus carolinensis (as Pinus) (MONCCA) Host
Monochamus maculosus (as Pinus) (MONCMC) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
Monochamus nitens (as Pinus) (MONCNI) Host
* Akbulut S, Togashi K & Linit MJ (2017) Cerambycids as plant disease vectors with special reference to pine wilt. In Cerambycidae of the world, pp. 209-252. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Monochamus obtusus (MONCOB) Host
* Linsley EG, Chemsak JA (1984) The Cerambycidae of North America, Part VII, No. 1: taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Lamiinae, tribes Parmenini through Acanthoderini. University of California Publications in Entomology 102, 258 pp.
Monochamus obtusus (as Pinus) (MONCOB) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Keen FP (1952) Insect Enemies of Western Forests. Miscellaneous Publication no. 273. USDA, 209 pp.
Monochamus saltuarius (as Pinus) (MONCSL) Host
Monochamus scutellatus (as Pinus) (MONCST) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus sutor (as Pinus) (MONCSU) Host
Monochamus titillator (as Pinus) (MONCTI) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Duffy EAJ (1960) A monograph of the immature stages of neotropical timber beetles. London: British Museum (Natural History), 327 pp.

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus urussovii (as Pinus) (MONCUR) Host
Oemona hirta (OEMOHI) Host
* Plant-SyNZ. Landcare Research (NZ). Host plants of a herbivore -Oemona hirta. http://plant-synz.landcareresearch.co.nz/index.asp). Last accessed 2021-06.
Orgyia leucostigma (as Pinus) (HEMELE) Host
* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts.
Orgyia pseudotsugata (ORGYPS) Host
Phytophthora cinnamomi (as Pinaceae) (PHYTCN) Host
Pissodes castaneus (PISONO) Host
Pissodes castaneus (as Pinus) (PISONO) Host
Pissodes nemorensis (PISONE) Host
Pissodes strobi (PISOST) Host
* Humble LM, Humphreys N, Van Sickle GA (1994) Distribution and hosts of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), in Canada. pp. 68-75. In AIfaro RI, Kiss G, Fraser RG (eds) The white pine weevil: biology, damage and management. Proceedings of a symposium held January 19-21, 1994 in Richmond, British Columbia. FRDA Report No. 226. 75 pp.
------- as P. contorta var. latifolia. Breeding host
Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae (as Pinus) (CERSPD) Host
* Ivory MH (1994) Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology 43 (3), 511-518.
Rhyacionia buoliana (as Pinus) (EVETBU) Host
Rotylenchus buxophilus (as Pinus) (HELYBU) Host
Sirex ermak (as Pinus) (SIRXER) Host
Sirex noctilio (as Pinus) (SIRXNO) Host
Tetropium gracilicorne (as Pinus) (TETOGR) Host
Thaumetopoea processionea (as Pinus) (THAUPR) Host
* Gomez-Bustillo MR (1978) Los Thaumetopoeidae de la Peninsula Iberica: nociones de sistematica, ecologica e importancia economica de la famila. Revista de Lepidopterologia 5, 283-290; 6, 113- 124. 
Toumeyella parvicornis (TOUMPA) Host
* Malumphy C, Hamilton MA, Manco BN, Green PW, Sanchez MD, Corcoran M, Salamanca E (2012) Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae), causing severe decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Florida Entomologist 95(1), 113-119.
Trichoferus campestris (as Pinus) (HESOCA) Host
* CAPS (2019) Trichoferus campestris. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey pest datasheets. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3869
------- Living host.
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (as Pinus) (TYLRCL) Host
Xylosandrus compactus (as Pinus) (XYLSCO) Host
Arceuthobium americanum (AREAM) Major host
Arceuthobium tsugense (ARETS) Major host
* Hawksworth FG, Wiens D (1996) Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. USDA - Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 709, 429 pp.
------- Principal host for A. tsugense subsp. tsugense.
Atropellis pinicola (ATRPPC) Major host
* Scharpf RF (ed) (1993) Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. Agriculture Handbook no. 521. USDA, Forest Service (US), 199 pp.

* Sinclair WA, Lyon HH,  Johnson WT (2005) Diseases of Trees and Shrubs, Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY (USA). 660 pp.
Atropellis piniphila (ATRPPP) Major host
* Scharpf RF (ed) (1993) Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. Agriculture Handbook no. 521. USDA, Forest Service (US), 199 pp.

* Sinclair WA, Lyon HH,  Johnson WT (2005) Diseases of Trees and Shrubs, Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY (USA). 660 pp.
Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (as Pinus) (BURSMU) Major host
Cronartium coleosporioides (CRONCL) Major host
Cronartium comandrae (CRONCO) Major host
Cronartium comptoniae (CRONCP) Major host
Cronartium harknessii (ENDCHA) Major host
Dendroctonus ponderosae (DENCPO) Major host
* Armendariz-Toledano F, Zuniga G (2016) Illustrated key to species of genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurring in Mexico and Central America. Journal of Insect Science 17(2), 1-15.
------- Listed as a host.
Dendroctonus valens (DENCVA) Major host
* Atkinson TH (2018) Bark and ambrosia beetles (US and Canada). Available at: http://www.barkbeetles.info/regional_chklist_target_species.php?lookUp=491 (accessed 29 June 2018)
Monochamus galloprovincialis (as Pinus) (MONCGA) Major host
Pissodes terminalis (PISOTE) Major host
* Cameron E, Stark R (1989) Variations in the life cycle of the lodgepole terminal weevil, Pissodes terminalis Hopping (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in California. The Canadian Entomologist 121(9), 793-801.