EPPO Global Database

Raffaelea lauricola(RAFFLA)

Distribution details in United States of America (Florida)

Situation
Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2016: Present, widespread
From CABI Disease map 1170 (2015): Present, restricted distribution
Comments
EPPO Reporting Service (2014/086) : first found in Duval county in 2005 on redbay (Persea borbonia), and on avocado (Persea americana) in 2006. Since then the disease has spread throughout the state reaching Panama city in 2010, and Miami-Dade county in 2011. The disease has been detected in avocado commercial groves (first infected tree detected in February 2012, as of July 2013, 90 trees were found infected).

EPPO Reporting Service (2004/171) : found in one Laurus nobilis tree in Florida.

According to ProMed (2016): found in almost all counties of Florida, causing tree mortality (approx. 12 000 trees) in commecial avocado orchards.
References
* Carrillo D, Crane JH, Pena JE (2013) Potential of contact insecticides to control Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a vector of laurel wilt disease in avocados. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(6), 2286-2295.
------- Found in avocado commercial groves (first infected tree was detected in Februay 2012, 90 trees were infected as of July 2013).

* Hughes MA, Shin K, Eickwort J, Smith JA (2012) First report of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on silk bay in Florida. Plant Disease 96(6), p 910-911.
------- On silk bay (Persea humilis).

* Hughes MA, Black A, Smith JA (2014) First report of laurel wilt caused by Raffaelea lauricola on bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) in the United States. Plant Disease 98(8), p 1159.
------- On Laurus nobilis.

* Mayfield AE III, Smith JA, Hughes M, Dreaden TJ (2008) First report of laurel wilt disease caused by a Raffaelea sp. on avocado in Florida. Plant Disease 92(6), p 976.

* ProMed posting (no. 20160516.4225817) of 2016-05-16. Laurel wilt, avocado - USA: (FL). http://www.promedmail.org/post/4225817

* Sankaran S, Ehsani R, Inch SA, Ploetz RC (2012) Evaluation of visible-near infrared reflectance spectra of avocado leaves as a non-destructive sensing too for detection of laurel wilt. Plant Disease 96(11), 1683-1689.

* Stocks S (2011) Laurel wilt detected in Miami-Dade country. NPDN First Detector Network News 6(3), 3-4.
------- Confirmed in 3 Persea palustris in Miami-Dade county.