EPPO Global Database

Pinus nigra(PIUNI)

Pests

Organism Type
Melampsora medusae (as Pinus) (MELMME) Alternate
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (as Pinus) (MELMMD) Alternate
Cronartium fusiforme (CRONFU) Experimental
Dendrolimus sibiricus (DENDSI) Experimental
* Kirichenko NI, Baranchikov YN, Vidal S (2009) Host plant preference and performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) on European coniferous species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11, 247-254.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2011) Larval performances and life cycle completion of the Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), on potential host plants in Europe: a laboratory study on potted trees. European Journal of Forest Research 130(6), 1067-1074.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2008) Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe – possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae). EPPO Bulletin 38, 259-263.
------- Artificial / potentially poor host in Europe (laboratory trial)
Arceuthobium americanum (as Pinus) (AREAM) Host
Arceuthobium campylopodum (as Pinus) (ARECP) Host
Arceuthobium laricis (as Pinus) (ARELA) Host
Arceuthobium occidentale (as Pinus) (AREOC) Host
Arceuthobium pusillum (as Pinus) (AREPU) Host
Arceuthobium vaginatum (as Pinus) (AREVA) Host
Atropellis pinicola (ATRPPC) Host
Atropellis pinicola (as Pinus) (ATRPPC) Host
Atropellis piniphila (as Pinus) (ATRPPP) Host
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (BURSXY) Host
* Dropkin VH, Foudin AS (1979) Report of the occurrence of Bursaphelenchus lignicolus-induced pine wilt disease in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter 63(11), 904-905.

* Dropkin VH, Foudin A, Kondo E, Linit M, Smith M, Robbins K (1981) Pinewood nematode: a threat to US forests? Plant Disease 65(12), 1022-1027.

* Malek RB, Appleby JE (1984) Epidemiology of pine wilt in Illinois. Plant Disease 68(3), 180-186.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (as Pinus) (BURSXY) Host
Chionaspis pinifoliae (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Liu T (1987) Biosystematics of the genus Chionaspis (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae) of North America, with emphasis on polymorphism. Masters Theses. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 305 p.; 
* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
Chionaspis pinifoliae (as Pinus) (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
------- Pinus maximartinezii, Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa (as Pinus washoensis).
Choristoneura fumiferana (as Pinus) (CHONFU) Host
Coniferiporia weirii (as Pinaceae) (INONWE) Host
Crisicoccus pini (DACLPI) Host
* Boselli M, Pellizzari G (2016) First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests? Zootaxa 4083(2), 293-296.
Cronartium coleosporioides (as Pinus) (CRONCL) Host
Cronartium comandrae (CRONCO) Host
Cronartium comandrae (as Pinus) (CRONCO) Host
Cronartium comptoniae (CRONCP) Host
Cronartium comptoniae (as Pinus) (CRONCP) Host
Cronartium flaccidum (as Pinus) (CRONFL) Host
Cronartium fusiforme (as Pinus) (CRONFU) Host
Cronartium harknessii (ENDCHA) Host
Cronartium harknessii (as Pinus) (ENDCHA) Host
Cronartium himalayense (as Pinus) (CRONHI) Host
Cronartium kamtschaticum (as Pinus) (CRONKA) Host
Cronartium quercuum (CRONQU) Host
Cronartium quercuum (as Pinus) (CRONQU) Host
Dendroctonus adjunctus (as Pinus) (DENCAD) Host
Dendroctonus brevicomis (as Pinus) (DENCBR) Host
Dendroctonus frontalis (as Pinus) (DENCFR) Host
* Hain FP, Duehl AJ, Gardener MJ, Payne TL (2011) Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13-24. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39019
------- "The SPB infests and kills all pine species in its range"
Dendroctonus micans (DENCMI) Host
* Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Dynamics of forest insect populations (Ed. by Berryman A) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. pp. 455-478.
------- As Pinus nigra var. austriaca.
Dendroctonus ponderosae (as Pinus) (DENCPO) Host
Dendrolimus spectabilis (as Pinus) (DENDSC) Host
Diabrotica virgifera zeae (as Pinus) (DIABVZ) Host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 615 pp.
------- Adult host.
Dothistroma pini (DOTSPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Varying from slightly to highly susceptible.

* Ortíz de Urbina E, Mesanza N, Aragonés A, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Boqué R, Patten C, Aitken J, Iturritxa E (2017) Emerging needle blight diseases in Atlantic Pinus ecosystems of Spain. Forests 8(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010018
------- In these studies, D. pini was found in P.  nigra together with D. septosporum.
Dothistroma septosporum (SCIRPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Varying from slightly to highly susceptible.

* Mesanza N, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M,  Barnes I, van der Nest A, Hernandez M, Pascual MT, Barrena I, San Martin U, Cantero A, Hernandez-Escribano L, Iturritxa E (2021) New hosts for Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma septosporum in newly established arboreta in Spain. Forest Pathology 51, e12650. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12650

* Ortíz de Urbina E, Mesanza N, Aragonés A, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Boqué R, Patten C, Aitken J, Iturritxa E (2017) Emerging needle blight diseases in Atlantic Pinus ecosystems of Spain. Forests, 8, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010018
------- Confirmed host.
Elasmopalpus lignosellus (as Pinus) (ELASLI) Host
* Dixon WN (1982) Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services no 236, 2 pp.
Epiphyas postvittana (as Pinus) (TORTPO) Host
Fusarium circinatum (GIBBCI) Host
* EPPO RS 2006/050
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (as Pinaceae) (GNAHSU) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (GREMAB) Host
Gremmeniella abietina (as Pinus) (GREMAB) Host
Grosmannia wageneri (as Pinus) (LEPGWA) Host
Heterobasidion irregulare (as Pinus) (HETEIR) Host
Hylurgus ligniperda (as Pinus) (HYLGLI) Host
Ips amitinus (IPSXAM) Host
* Pavlovskij EN (1955) Vrediteli lesa [Forest pests]. Isd. Akad. Nauk SSSR Moskva [in Russian]. 

* Pfeffer A (1995) Zentral- und westpaläarktische Borken- und Kernkäfer (Coleoptera : Scolytidae, Platypodidae). Pro Entomologia & Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel (CH), 310 pp.

* Witrylak W (2008) Studies of the biology, ecology, phenology, and economic importance of Ips amitinus (Eichh.) (Col., Scolytidae) in experimental forests of Krynica (Beskid Sadecki, southern Poland). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Silvarum Colendarum Ratio et Industria Lignaria, 7 (1), 75-92.

Ips amitinus (as Pinus) (IPSXAM) Host
Ips calligraphus (as Pinus) (IPSXCA) Host
Ips confusus (as Pinus) (IPSXCO) Host
Ips grandicollis (IPSXGR) Host
* DiGirolomo MF, Bohne MJ, Dodds KJ, Gapinski AT, DelRosso JS, Charap JG, Evans SC (2021) Utilizing urban arboreta for detection of native and non‐native wood‐inhabiting beetles. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12470
------- confirmed host.
Ips hauseri (IPSXHA) Host
* CABI (2020) Invasive Species Compendium. https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/28826
------- No other source could be found. 
Ips hauseri (as Pinus) (IPSXHA) Host
* Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov V, Savard K (2019) Dichotomous and matrix-based keys to the Ips bark beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 38, 234 pp. http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/dcgs_38/factsheets/Ips_hauseri.pdf
Ips lecontei (as Pinus) (IPSXLE) Host
Ips pini (as Pinus) (IPSXPI) Host
Ips plastographus (as Pinus) (IPSXPL) Host
Ips sexdentatus (IPSXSE) Host
* Roganovic D (2013) Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scotylidae) of Montenegro. Agriculture & Forestry 59(3), 109-117.

* Sarikaya O, Avci M (2011) Bark beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) of the coniferous forests in the Mediterranean region of Western Turkey, with a new record for Turkish fauna. Turkish Journal of Zoology 35(1), 33-47.

* Sarikaya O, Avci M, Yildirim S (2012) Flight activity and biology of Ips sexdentatlus Boerner in black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) forests in Isparta, Turkey. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference: Forests in the future - Sustainable use, risks and challenges (Belgrade, RS, 2012-10-04/05), 597-604.
Lecanosticta acicola (SCIRAC) Host
Adamčíková K, Jánošíková Z, Adamčík S, Ostrovský R, Pastirčáková K, Kobza M, Ondrušková E (2021) Host range, genetic variability, and mating types of Lecanosticta acicola in Slovakia. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 36(5), 325-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2021.1941236

* Hedgcock GG (1929) Septoria acicola and the brown-spot disease of pine needles. Phytopathology, 19, 993-999.

* Hintsteiner M, Cech TL, Halmschlager E, Stauffer C, Kirisits T (2012) First report of Mycosphaerella dearnessii on Pinus nigra var. nigra in Austria. Forest Pathology 42, 437-440.

* Janoušek J, Wingfield MJ, Marmolejo Monsivais JG, Jankovský L, Stauffer C, Konečný A, Barnes I (2016) Genetic analyses suggest separate introductions of the pine pathogen Lecanosticta acicola into Europe. Phytopathology 106(11), 1413-1425.

* Ortíz de Urbina E, Mesanza N, Aragonés A, Raposo R, Elvira-Recuenco M, Boqué R, Patten C, Aitken J, Iturritxa E (2017) Emerging needle blight diseases in Atlantic Pinus ecosystems of Spain. Forests 8(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/f8010018

* Oskay F, Laas M, Mullett M, Lehtijärvi A, Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi HT, Woodward S, Drenkhan R (2020) First report of Lecanosticta acicola on pine and non-pine hosts in Turkey. Forest Pathology 50, e12654. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12654
-------- As Pinus nigra subsp. nigra.

* van der Nest A, Wingfield MJ, Janoušek J, Barnes I (2019) Lecanosticta acicola: a growing threat to expanding global pine forests and plantations. Molecular Plant Pathology 20(10), 1327-1364. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12853
Leptoglossus occidentalis (as Pinus) (LEPLOC) Host
Marchalina hellenica (MARCHE) Host
Megaplatypus mutatus (as Pinus) (PLTPMU) Host
* Giménez RA, Etiennot AE (2003) Host range of Platypus mutatus. Entomotropica 18, 89–94.
Monochamus alternatus (MONCAL) Host
* Davis EE, Albrecht EM, Venette RC (2008) Exotic pine pests: survey reference. Monochamus alternatus. CAPS, cooperative agriculture pest survey, 63-74. https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev2_026444.pdf

* Kishi Y (1995) The pine wood nematode and the Japanese pine sawyer. Thomas Company Limited, Tokyo, 302 pp.
Monochamus carolinensis (as Pinus) (MONCCA) Host
Monochamus maculosus (as Pinus) (MONCMC) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
Monochamus nitens (as Pinus) (MONCNI) Host
Monochamus obtusus (as Pinus) (MONCOB) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Keen FP (1952) Insect Enemies of Western Forests. Miscellaneous Publication no. 273. USDA, 209 pp.
Monochamus saltuarius (as Pinus) (MONCSL) Host
Monochamus scutellatus (MONCST) Host
* Wingfield MJ, Blanchette RA (1983) The pine-wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Minnesota and Wisconsin - insect associates and transmission studies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestière 13(6), 1068-1076. 
Monochamus scutellatus (as Pinus) (MONCST) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus sutor (as Pinus) (MONCSU) Host
Monochamus titillator (as Pinus) (MONCTI) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Duffy EAJ (1960) A monograph of the immature stages of neotropical timber beetles. London: British Museum (Natural History), 327 pp.

* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus urussovi (as Pinus) (MONCUR) Host
Orgyia leucostigma (as Pinus) (HEMELE) Host
* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp

* Robinson GS, Ackery PR, Kitching IJ, Beccaloni GW, Hernández LM (2010) HOSTS - A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosts.
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Host
* Anonymous (1960) Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. Agriculture Handbook no 165, USDA-ARS (US) 531 pp.
Phytophthora cinnamomi (as Pinaceae) (PHYTCN) Host
Pissodes castaneus (as Pinus) (PISONO) Host
Pissodes strobi (PISOST) Host
* Humble LM, Humphreys N, Van Sickle GA (1994) Distribution and hosts of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), in Canada. pp. 68-75. In AIfaro RI, Kiss G, Fraser RG (eds) The white pine weevil: biology, damage and management. Proceedings of a symposium held January 19-21, 1994 in Richmond, British Columbia. FRDA Report No. 226. 75 pp.
------- breeding host

* Masiuk M (2001) White pine weevil. Woody ornamentals IPM Fact Sheets. The Pennsylvania State University. 2 pp.
Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae (as Pinus) (CERSPD) Host
* Ivory MH (1994) Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology 43 (3), 511-518.
Rhyacionia buoliana (as Pinus) (EVETBU) Host
Rotylenchus buxophilus (as Pinus) (HELYBU) Host
Sirex ermak (as Pinus) (SIRXER) Host
Sirex noctilio (as Pinus) (SIRXNO) Host
Tetropium gracilicorne (as Pinus) (TETOGR) Host
Thaumetopoea processionea (as Pinus) (THAUPR) Host
* Gomez-Bustillo MR (1978) Los Thaumetopoeidae de la Peninsula Iberica: nociones de sistematica, ecologica e importancia economica de la famila. Revista de Lepidopterologia 5, 283-290; 6, 113- 124. 
Trichoferus campestris (as Pinus) (HESOCA) Host
* CAPS (2019) Trichoferus campestris. Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey pest datasheets. http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3869
------- Living host.
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni (as Pinus) (TYLRCL) Host
Xylosandrus compactus (as Pinus) (XYLSCO) Host
Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (as Pinus) (BURSMU) Major host
Leptoglossus occidentalis (LEPLOC) Major host
Monochamus galloprovincialis (MONCGA) Major host
Monochamus galloprovincialis (as Pinus) (MONCGA) Major host
Pissodes castaneus (PISONO) Major host
Thaumetopoea pityocampa (THAUPI) Major host
* Démolin G (1969) Comportement des adultes de Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. Dispersion spatiale, importance économique. Annales des Sciences Forestières 26, 81-102.
------- As Pinus nigra var. austriaca.