EPPO Global Database

Persea americana(PEBAM)

Pests

Organism Type
'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (PHYPSO) Doubtful host
* Laviña A, Batlle A, Garcia Faraco J, López Herrera CJ (2002) First report of stolbur phytoplasma in wvocado in Spain. Plant Disease 86(6), p 692.
------- Isolate found on Persea americana is not confirmed to belong 'Ca. Phytoplasma solani' (only the confirmation that the isolate found on this host plant belongs to the stolbur group is given).
Chrysobothris mali (CHRBMA) Doubtful host
* Burke HE (1929) The Pacific Flathead Borer. Technical Bulletin - United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., (83).
-------as P. gratissima
Rhynchophorus palmarum (RHYCPA) Experimental
* Hagley EAC (1965) On the life history and habits of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 58(1), 22-28.
------- Adult feeding on ripe fruit.

* Wattanapongsiri A (1966) A revision of the genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis. Department of Agricultural Science Bulletin, Bangkok, Thailand.
Aleurocanthus spiniferus (ALECSN) Host
* Gillespie PS (2012) A review of the whitefly genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Zootaxa 3252, 1-42.
Aleurocanthus woglumi (ALECWO) Host
* Dubey AK, Ko CC (2012) Sexual dimorphism among species of Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Taiwan, with one new species and an identification key. Zootaxa 3177, 1–23.
Aleurodicus dispersus (ALEDDI) Host
Aleurodicus dugesii (ALEDDU) Host
Anastrepha fraterculus (ANSTFR) Host
* Putruele MTG (1996) Hosts for Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus in the northeastern Province of Entre Ríos, Argentina. In Fruit Fly Pests: A World Assessment of Their Biology and Management, BA McPheron & GJ Steck (Eds.), pp. 343–345. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL.

* Rust EW (1918) Anastrepha fraterculus Wied. (Trypetidae)—A severe menace to the southern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 11, 457–467.

* Wille TJE (1952) Entomología Agrícola del Perú. Dirección General de Agricultura, Lima, 543 pp.
Anastrepha ludens (ANSTLU) Host
* Aluja M, Diaz-Fleisher F, Arredondo J (2004) Non-host status of Persea americana ‘Hass’ to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology 97, 293-309.
------- 'Hass' avocado is a NON-HOST.

* Baker AC, Stone WE, Plummer CC, McPhail M (1944) A review of studies on the Mexican fruitfly and related Mexican species. USDA Miscellaneous Publications, 155 pp. 

* Bush G (1957) Some notes on the susceptibility of avocados in Mexico to attack by the Mexican fruit fly. Journal of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society 6, 75-95. 

* Bush GL (1962) The cytotaxonomy of the larvae of some Mexican fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha (Tephritidae, Diptera). Psyche 69(3), 87-101. 

* Stone A (1942) The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. USDA Miscellaneous Publications 439, 112 pp.
Anastrepha serpentina (ANSTSE) Host
Anastrepha suspensa (ANSTSU) Host
* Anonymous (1966) [Host records for Tephritidae]. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Economic Insect Report, 16, 32, 83, 225, 469, 498, 525, 556, 589, 652, 683, 712, 738, 818, 888, 965, 980, 1034, 1118, 1158. 
------- Incidental host.

* Swanson RW, Baranowski RM (1972) Host range and infestation by the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae), in south Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 271-273.
------- Incidental host.

* Weems HV Jr (1966) Caribbean fruit fly. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticulture Society 79, 401-405.
------- Incidental host.
Anoplophora chinensis (as Persea) (ANOLCN) Host
* Sjöman H, Östberg J & Nilsson J (2014) Review of host trees for the wood-boring pests Anoplophora glabripennis and Anoplophora chinensis: an urban forest perspective. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 40(3), 143–164.
Bactrocera carambolae (BCTRCB) Host
* Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Drew RAI., Hamacek EL., Hancock DL., Hengsawad C, Jipanin JC, Jirasurat M, Kong Krong C, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South East Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology suppl 7, 1-92.   

* Liquido NJ, McQuate GT, Nakamichi KA, Kurashima RS, Birnbaum AL, Hanlin MA (2016) Provisional list of suitable host plants of carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.1. Available online at USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI).
Bactrocera caryeae (BCTRCR) Host
* Ramani S, David KJ, Viraktamath CA, Kumar ARV (2008) Identity and distribution of Bactrocera caryeae (Kapoor) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) - A species under the Bactrocera dorsalis complex in India. Biosystematica 2, 49-57.
Bactrocera dorsalis (DACUDO) Host
* Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jinapin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(7), 1-92.
Bactrocera kandiensis (BCTRKA) Host
* Tsuruta K, White IM, Bandara HMJ, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma SAH, Kahawatta SBMUC, Rajapakse GBJP (1997) A preliminary notes on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia 37, 149-160.
Bactrocera latifrons (DACULA) Host
* Hendrival H, Aryani DS, Saputri N (2020) Diversity and host range of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in horticultural commodities in Lembah Seulawah District, Aceh Besar Regency, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Horticulture 3(1), 6-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.33089/jthort.v3i1.38
------- confirmed host. 
Bactrocera tryoni (DACUTR) Host
* Hancock D, Hamacek EL, Lloyd AC, Elson-Harris MM (2000) The distribution and host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Australia. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 75 pp.

* Leblanc L, Vueti ET, Drew AI, Allwood AJ (2012) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) in the Pacific islands. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Society 44, 11-53.
Bactrocera zonata (DACUZO) Host
* Duyck PF, David P, Pavoine S, Quilici S (2008) Can host-range allow niche differentiation of invasive polyphagous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in La Réunion? Ecological Entomology 33(4), 439-452.
Brevipalpus yothersi (BRVPYO) Host
* Beard JJ, Ochoa R, Braswell WE, Bauchan GR (2015) Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) species complex (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) – a closer look. Zootaxa 3944(1), 67 pp. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3944.1.1
Ceratitis anonae (CERTAN) Host
* INTERNET
True Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Ceratitis anonae. Specimens. http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/taxoninfo.html?id=56
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis capitata (CERTCA) Host
* De Meyer M., Copeland RS, Lux SA, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White IM, Zenz NJ (2002) Annotated check list of host plants for Afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Zoologische Documentatie Koninklijk Museum voor Midden Afrika 27, 1-91.
Ceratitis cosyra (CERTCO) Host
Ceratitis fasciventris (CERTFA) Host
* INTERNET
True Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Ceratitis fasciventris. Specimens. http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/taxoninfo.html?id=63
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis malgassa (CERTMA) Host
* Rasolofoarivao H, Raveloson Ravaomanarivo LH, Delatte H (2021) Host plant ranges of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Madagascar. Bulletin of Entomological Research 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0007485321000511
Ceratitis quilicii (CERTQI) Host
* INTERNET
True Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Ceratitis quilicii. Specimens. http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/taxoninfo.html?id=434
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis rosa (CERTRO) Host
Ceratothripoides brunneus (CRTZBR) Host
* Ebratt-Ravelo EE, Castro-Avila AP, Vaca-Uribe JL, Corredor-Pardo D, Hance T, Goldarazena A (2019) Composition and structure of Thripidae populations in crops of three geographical regions in Colombia, Journal of Insect Science, 19(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iez009
------- found on avocado in Colombia
Ceroplastes ceriferus (CERPCE) Host
Ceroplastes destructor (CERPDE) Host
Ceroplastes stellifer (VINSST) Host
Colletotrichum acutatum (COLLAC) Host
Cryptoblabes gnidiella (CRYBGN) Host
Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata (DIABUN) Host
* Clark SM, LeDoux DG, Seeno TN, Riley EG, Gilbert AJ, Sullivan JM (2004) Host plants of leaf beetle species occurring in the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Chrysomelidae, excluding Bruchinae). Coleopterists Society, Special Publication 2, 1-476.
-------- Adult host.
Diaprepes abbreviatus (DPREAB) Host
Elsinoë perseae (SPHAPE) Host
Euplatypus parallelus (PLTPPA) Host
* Carrillo D, Duncan RE, Pena JE (2012) Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) that breed in avocado wood in Florida. Florida Entomologist 95(3), 573-579,
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato (XYLBFO) Host
* Eskalen A, Stouthamer R, Lynch SC, Rugman-Jones PF, Twizeyimana M, Gonzalez A, Thibault T (2013) Host range of Fusarium dieback and its ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) vector in southern California. Plant Disease 97(7), 938-951.

* List of Trees Impacted by Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PHSB) in South Africa (2019-07) https://polyphagous-shot-hole-borer.co.za/pshb-tree-list-july-2019/
------- reproductive host in South Africa

* University of California. Invasive shot hole borers. ISHB reproductive hosts. https://ucanr.edu/sites/pshb/pest-overview/ishb-reproductive-hosts/ (last accessed 2021-03)
-------- Reproductive host (infection usually causes branch dieback)
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu stricto (EUWAWH) Host
* Mendel Z, Lynch SC, Eskalen A, Protasov A, Maymon M, Freeman S (2021) What determines host range and reproductive performance of an invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus; lessons from Israel and California. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 4, 654702.
------- Reproductive host tree in both California (US) and Israel.

* Smith SM, Gomez DF, Beaver RA, Hulcr J, Cognato AI (2019) Reassessment of the species in the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) complex after the rediscovery of the ‘lost’ type specimen. Insects 10, 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090261
------- As host of PSHB (polyphagous shot hole borer).
Euwallacea kuroshio (as Persea) (EUWAKU) Host
* Smith SM, Gomez DF, Beaver RA, Hulcr J, Cognato AI (2019) Reassessment of the species in the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) complex after the rediscovery of the ‘lost’ type specimen. Insects 10, 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090261
Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (ECDYAU) Host
* EPPO (2020) Pest Risk Analysis for Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), citrus fruit borer, macadamia fruit borer. EPPO, Paris. Available at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ECDYAU/documents
------- Uncertain hosts. No evidence was found if the pest completes its life cycle.

* White GL (1999) Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae), a new host of Ecdytolopha aurantianum (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae). International Journal of Pest Management, 45(4), 287–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/096708799227699
Helopeltis antonii (HELOAN) Host
Homalodisca vitripennis (HOMLTR) Host
* Hoddle MS, Triapitsyn SV, Morgan DJW (2003) Distribution and plant association records for Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist 86(1), 89-91.
Lasiodiplodia theobromae (PHYORH) Host
* Wanjiku EK, Waceke JW, Wanjala BW, Mbaka JN (2020) Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with stem end rots of avocado fruits in Kenya. International Journal of Microbiology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4063697
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (PHENHI) Host
* Chang LWH, Miller CE (1996) Pathway Risk Assessment: Pink mealybug from the Caribbean. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 61 pp.
Megaplatypus mutatus (PLTPMU) Host
* Costilla MA, Venditti ME (1992) [Importance and control of taladrillo Platypus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae), pest of citrus and avocado]. Revista Industrial y Agrícola de Tucumán 69(1-2), 163-166 (in Spanish).
Naupactus xanthographus (NAUPXA) Host
* González (1989) Insectos y acaros de importancia agricola y cuarentenaria en Chile. Universidad de Chile: 310 pp
------- confirmed host (as palto)

* Lanteri A, del Río MG (2017) Naupactus xanthographus (Germar) species group (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Naupactini): a comprehensive taxonomic treatment. Journal of Natural History 51, 27-28.

* Luppichini B P, Isla F, Henriquez IU, Olivares N, Fernando PY, Alvarez (2013) Manejo del Burrito de la vid, Naupactus xanthographus (Germar) y otros curculiónidos asociados a vides
Neosilba glaberrima (NSILGL) Host
* Martins de Almeida LB, Coelho JB, Uchoa MA, Gisloti LJ (2019) Diversity of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) and Their Host Plants in a Conservation Unit from Midwestern Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 102(3), 562-570. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.102.0333
------- confirmed host
Neosilba zadolicha (NSILZA) Host
* Martins de Almeida LB, Coelho JB, Uchoa MA, Gisloti LJ (2019) Diversity of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) and Their Host Plants in a Conservation Unit from Midwestern Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 102(3), 562-570. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.102.0333
------- confirmed host
Oemona hirta (OEMOHI) Host
* Plant-SyNZ. Landcare Research (NZ). Host plants of a herbivore -Oemona hirta. http://plant-synz.landcareresearch.co.nz/index.asp). Last accessed 2021-06.
Papaya mosaic virus (PAPMV0) Host
Parasaissetia nigra (SAISNI) Host
Penthimiola bella (PETHBE) Host
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (PHMPOM) Host
Platynota stultana (PLAAST) Host
Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVD0) Host
* Querci M, Owens RA, Vargas C, Salazar LF (1995) Detection of potato spindle tuber viroid in avocado growing in Peru. Plant Disease 79, 196-202.
Prodiplosis longifila (PRDILO) Host
Pseudacysta perseae (as Persea) (PSEYPE) Host
Radopholus similis (RADOSI) Host
Radopholus similis citrus race (RADOCI) Host
Scirtothrips aurantii (SCITAU) Host
* Bara GT, Laing MD (2019) Determination of the natural host status of avocado fruit to pestiferous thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa," African Entomology, 27(1), 245-253 https://doi.org/10.4001/003.027.0245
------- confirmed host
Scirtothrips dorsalis (SCITDO) Host
* Kumar V,  Seal DR, Kakkar G, McKenzie CL,  Osborne LS (2012) New tropical fruit hosts of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its relative abundance on them in South Florida. Florida Entomologist, 95(1):205-207.
------- confirmed host (larvae and adults)
Spodoptera frugiperda (LAPHFR) Host
* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez DR, Roque-Specht VF, Sousa-Silva JC, Paula-Moraes SV, Peterson JA, Hunt T (2018) Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology 26, 286-300.
Tetranychus mexicanus (TETRME) Host
* Aranda BR and Flechtman CHW (1971) A report on the Tetranychidae of Paraguay. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 73: 29-33.
------- confirmed host
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (ARGPLE) Host
* Grové T, De Beer MS & Joubert PH (2010) Developing a Systems Approach for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ‘Hass’ Avocado in South Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103(4), 1112–1128, https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/103.4.1112

* Grové T Steyn WP & Beer MS de (2000) Host status of Hass avocado fruit for the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 2000. 23:99-102
------- poor host of T. leucotreta. When moths lay eggs on young fruits the caterpillars usually die and thus large caterpillars are seldom found, however, the caterpillars are able to develop if fruits are approaching maturity when infested.
Thrips palmi (THRIPL) Host
* Duran IC, Mesa NC, Estrada EI (1999) [Life cyle of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and host plant registered in the Cauca Valley]. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 25(3/4), 109-120 (in Spanish).
Xyleborus glabratus (XYLBGR) Host
* Brar GS, Capinera JL, Kendra PE, McLean S, Peña JE (2013) Life cycle, development, and culture of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Florida Entomologist 96(3), 1158-1167.
Xyleborus neivai (XYLBNE) Host
Xyleborus perforans (XYLBPE) Host
Xylella fastidiosa (XYLEFA) Host
Xylosandrus compactus (XYLSCO) Host
Xylosandrus crassiusculus (XYLBCR) Host
* Nel WJ, De Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, Duong TA (2020) The granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont found in South Africa. Zootaxa, 4838(3), 427–435. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4838.3.7
------- confirmed host in South Africa.
Zaprionus indianus (ZAPRIN) Host
Zeuzera coffeae (ZEUZCO) Host
Aleurothrixus trachoides (ALTRTR) Major host
Amblypelta lutescens (AMBPLU) Major host
* Lindsay KR, Zalucki MP, Newton IR, Furlong MJ (2019) Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of the Native Banana-Spotting Bug, Amblypelta lutescens lutescens (Hemiptera: Coreidae), in Avocado Crops in North Queensland, Australia, Journal of Economic Entomology 112(4), 1812–1820. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz084
------- confirmed host
Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVD0) Major host
Conotrachelus aguacatae (CONHAG) Major host
Conotrachelus perseae (CONHPE) Major host
Heilipus lauri (HEILLA) Major host
Neocosmospora euwallaceae (FUSAEW) Major host
* van den Berg N, du Toit M, Morgan SW, Fourie G, de Beer ZW (2019) First report of Fusarium euwallaceae causing necrotic lesions on Persea americana in South Africa. Plant Disease 103(7), p 1774.
------- Confirmed host.
Oligonychus perseae (OLIGPA) Major host
* Naves P, Nóbrega F, Auger P (2021) Updated and annotated review of Tetranychidae occurring in mainland Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira Archipelagos. Acarologia 61(2): 380-393
Parabemisia myricae (PRABMY) Major host
Paraleyrodes minei (PARYMI) Major host
Phytophthora cinnamomi (PHYTCN) Major host
Pseudacysta perseae (PSEYPE) Major host
Raffaelea lauricola (RAFFLA) Major host
* Ploetz RC, Inch SA, Pérez Martínez JM, White Jr TL (2012) Systemic infection of avocado, Persea americana, by Raffaelea lauricola, does not progress into fruit pulp or seed. Journal of Phytopathology 160(9), 491-495

* Ploetz RC, Pérez Martínez JM, Smith JA, Hughes M, Dreaden TJ, Inch SA, Fu Y (2012) Responses of avocado to laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola. Plant Pathology 61(4), 801-808.
Scirtothrips perseae (SCITPE) Major host
Stenoma catenifer (STENCA) Major host
Tetraleurodes perseae (TETLPE) Major host
Xylosandrus morigerus (XYLSMO) Major host