EPPO Global Database

Ipomovirus cucumisvenaflavi(CVYV00)

EPPO Datasheet: Ipomovirus cucumisvenaflavi

Last updated: 2023-03-20

IDENTITY

Preferred name: Ipomovirus cucumisvenaflavi
Taxonomic position: Viruses and viroids: Riboviria: Orthornavirae: Pisuviricota: Stelpaviricetes: Patatavirales: Potyviridae: Ipomovirus
Other scientific names: CVYV, Cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus
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Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature

CVYV is more closely related to Sweet potato mild mottle ipomovirus than any other virus in the family Potyviridae (Lecoq et al., 2000; Desbiez et al., 2001). Isolates of CVYV from Israel and Jordan induce similar vein-clearing symptoms in cucumber and melon, but the isolates from Jordan cause more severe stunting in cucumber (Lecoq et al., 2000). CVYV isolated from cucumber in Spain had a nucleotide sequence which was 95.6% identical to the sequence published for the isolate from Israel. A population of CVYV, which differs  from the Middle Eastern and Spanish populations based on phylogenetic studies, has been found in samples collected from Sudan between 1992 and 2012, suggesting that virus has long been endemic in sub-Saharan Africa (Desbiez et al., 2019).

EPPO Categorization: A2 list
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EPPO Code: CVYV00

HOSTS 2023-03-20

CVYV naturally infects cucumber (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960), melon (Yilmaz et al., 1989), watermelon (Janssen & Cuadrado, 2001) and courgette (Anon, 2001). Weeds are also reported as hosts in Jordan (Mansour & Al-Musa, 1993), and in Spain (Janssen et al., 2002). Experimental hosts have been studied using mechanical inoculation of cotyledons and inoculation by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960; Al-Musa et al., 1985; Yilmaz et al., 1989; Mansour & Al-Musa, 1993).

Host list: Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatus, Convolvulus arvensis, Cucumis melo var. flexuosus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita pepo var. giromontiina, Cucurbita pepo, Ecballium elaterium, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa sp., Malva parviflora, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus tenerrimus

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2023-03-20

CVYV is present in several countries from the Mediterranean area, Africa and Asia.

EPPO Region: Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Portugal (mainland), Spain (mainland), Tunisia, Türkiye
Africa: Sudan, Tunisia
Asia: India (Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman

BIOLOGY 2023-03-20

CVYV is transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960) in a semipersistent manner (Harpaz & Cohen, 1965; Mansour & Al-Musa, 1993). Adult insects acquire the virus by sucking on phloem sap for at least 30 min, and can further transmit it to another plant when feeding. The virus does not circulate or replicate in the insect and transmission efficiency decreases after 4-12 h (Harpaz & Cohen, 1965; Dombrovsky et al., 2014; Desbiez et al., 2019).

The aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae are not vectors (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960).

There is no evidence for seed transmission for CVYV or other Ipomovirus species (Dombrovsky et al., 2014).

CVYV is systemic in its natural hosts. It survives in weed hosts (Mansour & Al-Musa, 1993; Janssen et al., 2002), and in volunteer plants of crop hosts.

DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2023-03-20

Symptoms

In cucumber, CVYV causes pronounced vein clearing, chlorosis and finally general necrosis of the affected plant (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960). Light to dark green mosaic is observed on fruit (Anonymous, 2001). Non-parthenocarpic cucumbers have been reported to be symptomless carriers of CVYV while parthenocarpic cucumbers develop severe symptoms. Symptoms in both cucumber and melon have been described as vein yellowing, vein clearing and stunting with a corresponding yield reduction (Yilmaz et al., 1989). Sudden death was observed in melon crops in Spain (Janssen & Cuadrado, 2001). In watermelon, symptoms are often inconspicuous or not expressed (Anon, 2001). Occasional splitting of fruits has been observed (Janssen & Cuadrado, 2001). In courgette, there is a wide range of symptoms, from chlorotic mottling to vein yellowing, or no symptoms (Anon, 2001). In Spain, symptoms are considered to be increased by synergistic reactions between different viruses (Gil-Salas et al., 2011). Pinwheel-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions (typical of the Potyviridae) have been seen in electron microscopic studies of cells from CVYV-infected plants (Lecoq et al., 2000).

Morphology

Studies of the virus have revealed rod-shaped particles 740–800 nm long and 15–18 nm wide. The virus is estimated to have a sedimentation coefficient of about 220 S (Sela et al., 1980). Although it was first proposed that the viral nucleic acid of CVYV was double-stranded DNA (Sela et al., 1980) and later double-stranded RNA (Lecoq et al. , 2000), it is now clear that it is a positive-sense single-strand RNA (Dombrovsky et al., 2014). 

Detection and inspection methods

Vein clearing or vein yellowing of cucumber and melon is considered to be a distinctive symptom of CVYV. Molecular tests are available to detect CVYV (Martínez-García et al., 2004; EPPO Diagnostic Protocol PM 7/81, 2007).

PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2023-03-20

In international trade, CVYV is most likely to be carried by infected vegetative host material, such as seedlings. B. tabaci will spread CVYV locally. 

Because CVYV is semipersistent in its whitefly host and is retained for less than 12 h (Desbiez et al., 2019), B. tabaci is only likely to spread CVYV long distance if it is carried on infected host material. B. tabaci carried on non-host plants may not remain viruliferous for long enough to transmit the virus. CVYV is not known to be seed-borne.

PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2023-03-20

Economic impact

The cucumber disease caused by CVYV was first observed in the late 1950s in the Jordan valley area of Israel during the warm autumn growing season where it was reported to be severe and damaging. At that time, it had not been recorded in the cooler regions of Israel or during other seasons in the Jordan Valley (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960). In 1985, CVYV was recorded as present in the Jordan Valley in Jordan, but no indication of damage in this country has been given except that the virus stunted parthenocarpic cucumbers grown under plastic and that it was the most frequent viral disease of that crop (Al-Musa et al., 1985; Mansour & Al-Musa, 1993). Mansour (1994) reported that, in 1992, CVYV was detected in 43% of tested samples collected from cucumber crops grown under plastic. Similarly, the presence of CVYV on cucumber and melon in Turkey was not accompanied by information on crop damage other than a description of symptoms (Yilmaz et al., 1989). However, CVYV has been described as a widespread and severe disease of cucurbits in the eastern Mediterranean basin (Lecoq et al., 2000) and considerable losses were reported from Spain during the first outbreak (Cuadrado et al., 2001b). In autumn 2000, CVYV was considered important enough for the Spanish authorities to destroy affected plants covering 70 ha of glasshouses in an attempt to suppress further spread (Cuadrado et al., 2001a). Occasional splitting of watermelon fruits has been observed in Spain (Janssen & Cuadrado, 2001), and in Portugal (Louro et al., 2004).

Control

Preventive and cultural practices are used to control CVYV. Commercial resistant cucumber varieties are available (Pico et al., 2003; Gil-Salas et al., 2009). Potential resistance sources have been identified in melon but are not used commercially (Pitrat et al., 2012); there are no report of resistance in watermelon (Velasco et al., 2020). Care should be taken to protect cucumber or melon seedlings from infection before transplanting in the field or under plastic. The seedlings should be grown in a whitefly free environment.

In protected crops in Spain, control relies on preventive and cultural practices: use of pest-free seedlings, adequate glasshouse window screens, double doors, treatment of infected vegetable residues and the introduction of a rest period of at least one month between two cucurbit crops and monitoring of B. tabaci populations (Velasco et al., 2020).

When preventive and cultural methods are not sufficient, control of CVYV rely on the control of its whitefly vector B. tabaci. Regarding chemical control, B. tabaci appears to develop resistance to all groups of plant protection products that have been developed for its control. Rotation of insecticides that do not lead to cross resistance should therefore be used to control B. tabaci infestations. The parasite Encarsia formosa is used as a biological control agent to control T. vaporariorum, but it is less efficient against B. tabaci. Repeated introductions of larger numbers of E. formosa than B. tabaci are necessary if eradication is required. The predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii can limit B. tabaci populations in cucurbit crops by feeding on B. tabaci eggs (Tellez et al., 2017).

Phytosanitary risk

CYVY has been present in countries of the eastern Mediterranean area since the 1960s, and was found in Portugal, Spain and Tunisia in the 2000s. It can establish in areas where B. tabaci, its whitefly vector, is established. B. tabaci is present outdoors in many Southern European countries and is a glasshouse pest in some Northern European countries. Cucumber is grown throughout the EPPO region, while melons and watermelons are most commonly grown in Mediterranean countries. In 2003, CVYV was considered to have the potential to become a serious disease of cucurbits in the EPPO region. However, as of 2023, it has not become a major pest. The use of CVYV-resistant commercial cucumber cultivars, and the measures applied against B. tabaci and other whitefly-transmitted viruses may have helped reduce its impact.

PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2023-03-20

International trade in young cucurbit plants for planting seems the main pathway, but little information has been found on movements into or within the EPPO region. It is not clear how likely it is that seedlings would become infected, but they should presumably be protected from infection before entering trade. Visual inspections of export material may not detect the virus since it is latent in some hosts and may take some time to express symptoms in others. Suitable measures would ensure, for plants for planting of cucurbits from areas where CVYV occurs, crop or place of production freedom from the virus and exclusion of the vector B. tabaci. 

REFERENCES 2023-03-20

Al-Musa AM, Qusus SJ & Mansour AN (1985) Cucumber vein yellowing virus on cucumber in Jordan. Plant Disease 69, 361.

Anonymous (2001) [Cucumber vein yellowing virus.] Avisos e Informaciones Fitosanitarias. Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal no. 54Consejerio de Agricultura et Pesca, Juntas de Andalucía, Sevilla (ES) (in Spanish).

CABI (2019) Datasheet on Pest. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (cucumber vein yellowing) https://doi.org/10.1079/cabicompendium.17072

Cohen S & Nitzany FE (1960) A whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbits in Israel. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 1, 44–46.

Cuadrado IM, Janssen D, Velasco L, Ruiz L & Segundo E (2001a) Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) now in Spain. EWSN Newsletter no. 8. John Innes Centre, Norwich (GB).

Cuadrado IM, Janssen D, Velasco L, Ruiz L & Segundo E (2001b) First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Spain. Plant Disease 85, 336.

Desbiez C, Delécolle B, Wipf-Scheibel C & Lecoq H (2001) Le Cucumber vein yellowing virus, virus transmis par l’aleurode Bemisia tabaci, est un member des Ipomovirus, Potyviridae8èmes Rencontres de Virologie Végétale. CNRS, Aussois (FR).

Desbiez C, Caciagli P, Wipf‐Scheibel C, Millot P, Ruiz L, Marian D & Dafalla G & Lecoq H (2019) Evidence for long‐term prevalence of cucumber vein yellowing virus in Sudan and genetic variation of the virus in Sudan and the Mediterranean Basin. Plant pathology 68, 1268-1275.

Dombrovsky A, Reingold V, Antignus Y (2014) Ipomovirus–an atypical genus in the family Potyviridae transmitted by whiteflies. Pest management science 70(10), 1553-1567.

EPPO (2007) Diagnostic Protocol PM 7/81 (1) Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Ipomovirus). EPPO Bulletin 37, 554-559.

Gil-Salas FM, Colyer A, Boonham N, Cuadrado IM, Janssen D (2009) Resistance screening against cucumber vein yellowing virus using a real-time (TaqMan) RT-PCR assay in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Crop Protection 28, 109–112.

Gil-Salas FM, Peters J, Boonham N, Cuadrado IM & Janssen D (2011) Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus. Phytopathology 101, 1365-1372. 

Harpaz I & Cohen S (1965) Semipersistent relationship between cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) and its vector Bemisia tabaci. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 54, 240–248.

Janssen D & Cuadrado IM (2001) Whitefly problems escalate within Spanish cucurbit crops. ESWN Newsletter no. 11. John Innes Centre, Norwich (GB).

Janssen D, Ruiz L, Velasco L, Segundo E & Cuadrado IM (2002) Non-cucurbitaceous weed species shown to be natural hosts of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in south-eastern Spain. Plant Pathology 51(6), 797. 

Lecoq H, Desbiez C, Delécolle B, Cohn S & Mansour A (2000) Cytological and molecular evidence that the whitefly-transmitted Cucumber vein yellowing virus is a tentative member of the family Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology 81, 2289–2293.

Louro D, Quinot A, Neto E, Fernandes JE, Marian D, Vecchiati M, Caciagli P & Vaira AM (2004) Occurrence of cucumber vein yellowing virus in cucurbitaceous species in southern Portugal. Plant Pathology 53(2), 241.

Mansour A (1994) Incidence of cucurbit viruses affecting cucumber in plastic houses in Jordan. Dirasat. Series B, Pure and Applied Sciences 21, 175–179.

Mansour A & Al-Musa A (1993) Cucumber vein yellowing virus; host range and virus vector relationships. Journal of Phytopathology 137, 73–78.

Martínez-García B, Marco CF, Goytia E, López-Abella D, Serra MT, Aranda MA & López-Moya JJ (2004) Development and use of detection methods specific for Cucumber vein yellowing virus. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110, 811–821.

Pico B, Villar C & Nuez F (2003) Screening Cucumis sativus landraces for resistance to cucumber vein yellowing virus. Plant Breeding 122, 426-430.

Pitrat M, Wipf-Scheibel C, Besombes D, Desbiez C & Lecoq H (2012) Resistance of melon to Cucumber Vein Yellowing Virus (CVYV). In: Cucurbitaceae 2012. Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15-18 October, 2012 pp.157-164.

Sela I, Assouline I, Tanne E, Cohen S & Marco S (1980) Isolation and characterization of a rod-shaped, whitefly-transmissible, DNA-containing plant virus. Phytopathology 70, 226–228.

Téllez MM, Simon A, Rodriguez E & Janssen D (2017) Control of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in zucchini using the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii. Biological Control 114, 106–113.

Velasco L, Ruiz L, Galipienso L, Rubio L, Janssen D (2020) A historical account of viruses in intensive horticultural crops in the Spanish Mediterranean arc: new challenges for a sustainable agriculture. Agronomy 10(6), 860. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060860.

Yilmaz MA, Ozaslan M & Ozaslan D (1989) Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Cucurbitaceae in Turkey. Plant Disease 73, 610.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2023-03-20

This datasheet was extensively revised in 2023 by Dirk Janssen, IFAPA. His valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

How to cite this datasheet?

EPPO (2024) Ipomovirus cucumisvenaflavi. EPPO datasheets on pests recommended for regulation. https://gd.eppo.int (accessed 2024-07-18)

Datasheet history 2023-03-20

This datasheet was first published in the EPPO Bulletin in 2005 and revised in 2023. It is now maintained in an electronic format in the EPPO Global Database. The sections on 'Identity', ‘Hosts’, and 'Geographical distribution' are automatically updated from the database. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right.

EPPO (2005) Cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus. Data sheets on quarantine pests. EPPO Bulletin 35, 419–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2005.00846.x