EPPO Global Database

Thrips palmi(THRIPL)

EPPO Datasheet: Thrips palmi

Last updated: 2022-09-29

IDENTITY

Preferred name: Thrips palmi
Authority: Karny
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Other scientific names: Chloethrips aureus Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish, Thrips clarus Moulton, Thrips gossypicola (Priesner), Thrips gracilis Ananthakrishnan & Jadadish, Thrips leucadophilus Priesner, Thrips nilgiriensis Ramakrishna
Common names in English: melon thrips, oriental thrips, palm thrips, southern yellow thrips
view more common names online...
EPPO Categorization: A1 list
EU Categorization: A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A)
view more categorizations online...
EPPO Code: THRIPL

HOSTS 2022-09-22

Thrips palmi is a polyphagous pest, especially of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. It has been reported as an outdoor pest of aubergine (Solanum melongena), Benincasa hispida, Capsicum annuum, cotton (Gossypium spp.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Cucurbita spp., melon (Cucumis melo), peas (Pisum sativum), Phaseolus vulgaris, potato (S. tuberosum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), soyabean (Glycine max), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). It can infest flowers, for example of citrus in Florida (USA) or mango in India. It can also infest weeds (e.g. it was reported on Vicia sativa, Cerastium glomeratum and Capsella bursa-pastoris in unheated glasshouses in Japan Nagai & Tsumuki, 1990). In Japan, it does not attack tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), whose leaves have been shown to contain a feeding deterrent (Hirano et al., 1994); in the Caribbean, however, T. palmi has been recorded on outdoor tomato crops (Pantoja et al., 1988). In glasshouses, economically important hosts are aubergine, Capsicum annuum, chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x morifolium), cucumber, Cyclamen, Ficus and Orchidaceae. Within the EPPO region, T. palmi could infest, for example, Capsicum annuum, cucurbits, S. melongena, and ornamentals under glass.

Host list: Abelmoschus esculentus, Ageratum sp., Allamanda oenotherifolia, Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus spinosus, Apium graveolens, Arachis hypogaea, Arachnis, Argemone mexicana, Arracacia xanthorrhiza, Arundina graminifolia, Basilicum polystachyon, Bauhinia variegata, Benincasa hispida, Bidens pilosa, Bougainvillea sp., Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Callistephus chinensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Celosia argentea, Cerastium glomeratum, Chrysanthemum x morifolium, Chrysanthemum, Citrullus lanatus, Citrus, Cleome sp., Coriandrum sativum, Cosmos sulphureus, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Cyclamen persicum, Cyperus rotundus, Datura metel, Daucus carota, Dendrobium, Dianthus caryophyllus, Echinochloa colonum, Eleusine coracana, Eleusine indica, Eleutheranthera ruderalis, Eucalyptus sp., Euphorbia heterophylla, Ficus racemosa, Fragaria vesca, Gerbera jamesonii, Glebionis segetum, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Hibiscus sp., Hippeastrum puniceum, Ipomoea batatas, Ipomoea indica, Lactuca sativa, Linum usitatissimum, Luffa acutangula, Luffa aegyptiaca, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Mangifera indica, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa pigra, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sp., Ocimum tenuiflorum, Orchidaceae, Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Persea americana, Petroselinum crispum, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus niruri, Physalis angulata, Piper nigrum, Pisum sativum, Plumbago auriculata, Plumeria rubra, Portulaca grandiflora, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica, Pyrus communis, Raphanus sativus, Rosa, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Rubus, Salvia farinacea, Sauropus androgynus, Sesamum indicum, Sida acuta, Solanum betaceum, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum macrocarpon, Solanum mauritianum, Solanum melongena, Solanum quitoense, Solanum torvum, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum violaceum, Sphagneticola trilobata, Spinacia oleracea, Stachytarpheta urticifolia, Strobilanthes calycina, Synedrella nodiflora, Tagetes patula, Urena lobata, Urochloa mutica, Vaccinium, Vanda, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa, Vigna angularis, Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis, Vigna unguiculata, Vitis vinifera, Zantedeschia aethiopica, Zea mays

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2022-09-22

T. palmi was described in 1925 from Sumatra (Indonesia) (Karny, 1925). A few years later this species was discovered as far west as Sudan, and as far north as Taiwan. Since 1978, extensive outbreaks are reported yearly from Southern Japan (Sakimura et al., 1986). Since 1985 it has been spreading in the Caribbean region following its introduction in Guadeloupe and Martinique (Bournier, 1986; Denoyes et al., 1986; Guyot, 1988), and since 1988 there have been several limited outbreaks in the EPPO region which have been subsequently eradicated.

Africa: Cote d'Ivoire, Mauritius, Nigeria, Reunion, Sudan
Asia: Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China (Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xianggang (Hong Kong), Xizhang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Iraq, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Archipelago, Shikoku), Korea Dem. People's Republic, Korea, Republic, Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West), Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
North America: Mexico, United States of America (Florida, Hawaii)
Central America and Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, St Kitts-Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Virgin Islands (British)
South America: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo), Colombia, Ecuador (Galapagos), French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
Oceania: American Samoa, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland), French Polynesia, Guam, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Wallis and Futuna Islands

BIOLOGY 2022-09-22

In Japan, T. palmi can only overwinter on outdoor vegetation in a small part of Southern Japan (Yoshihara, 1982). Tsumuki et al. (1987) analysed the cold hardiness of T. palmi and concluded that it could not survive winter conditions in southern Honshu, and thus in most of Japan. However, another study (Nagai & Tsumuki, 1990) reported no reduction of adult populations at temperatures as low as -3 to -7°C in an unheated glasshouse in Japan. In Europe, an EFSA (2019) study concluded that most of Southern Europe had suitable climatic conditions for the establishment of T. palmi on outdoor vegetation.

At 25°C, the life cycle from egg to egg lasts 17.5 days. The life cycle differs little from that of most phytophagous Thripidae: the adults emerge from the pupa in the soil and move to the leaves or flowers of the plant, where they lay their eggs in the plant tissues. The second-stage larva enters the soil, develops there and pupates, thus completing the cycle. The specialized mouthparts are adapted for sucking. As a consequence the type of plant injury caused by feeding is always sucking damage. The life cycle and population dynamics of T. palmi in Japan have been reviewed by Kawai (1990a). At 25°C, the net reproductive rate, female fecundity and daily oviposition rate reached their maxima, the values for the last two parameters being 59.6 eggs per female and 3.8 eggs per day, respectively (Kawai, 1985). In Taiwan, the optimum temperature for population growth was found to be 25-30°C, and the number of generations possible in Central Taiwan was estimated as 25-26 per year (Huang and Chen, 2004). Likewise Cermeli and Montagne (1993) recorded that at 26°C, on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris, the life cycle was 11.5 days, the net reproduction rate 18.3, the generation time 27.3 days and the intrinsic rate of natural increase was 0.125 individuals per female per day.

DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2022-09-22

Symptoms

T. palmi can be found in buds, cracks or crevices on host plants. At inspection, silvery feeding scars on the leaf surface, especially alongside the midrib and veins, can be seen. Damage has been described in Martinique by Denoyes et al. (1986) on aubergine and cucurbits. On fruits, this thrips causes corky lesions, that are characteristic on aubergines.

Heavily infested plants are characterized by a silvered or bronzed appearance of the leaves, stunted leaves and terminal shoots, and scarred and deformed fruits. Individuals may be found on all parts of many kinds of plants (Sakimura et al., 1986).

Morphology

T. palmi can easily be mistaken for T. flavus Schrank or T. tabaci Lindeman, which are, economically less important thrips, commonly found on flower or vegetable crops. For the distinction between the three species, microscopic examination is necessary. T. palmi is characterized by the length of the female (about 1.3 mm compared with 1.7 mm in T. flavus), clear yellow body, with blackish setae, abdominal tergite II with four lateral setae, interocellar setae outside the ocellar triangle (T. flavus: interocellar setae inside), abdominal tergite VIII with complete comb in both sexes (T. flavus (male): comb incomplete). Strassen (1989) provides an account of characters distinguishing T. palmi from widespread thrips species in Europe. Confusions are also possible with other thrips species, such as Frankliniella occidentalis, F. schultzei, Thrips nigropilosus.

The EPPO Diagnostic Protocol for T. palmi (EPPO Standard PM 7/3, 2018) and ISPM 27 (FAO, 2010) provide recommendations on how to detect and identify the pest.

Detection and inspection methods

Thrips palmi is a small insect which is not easy to detect on plants, but its damage is visible: leaves silvered or bronzed, punctuations, corky marks on the fruits. The pest can be present on leaves, buds, fruits, flowers, but also in the soil as pupae. On cucurbits (e.g. melon, cucumber, watermelon), adults and larvae are notably present in the buds.

The eggs are impossible to observe because they are tiny and inserted into plant tissues. Fruits of aubergine, one of the preferred hosts of T. palmi, may harbour larvae and adults under the calyx. Within crops, T. palmi can be detected with blue or white sticky traps (Kawai, 1983). It is possible to detect T. palmi and evaluate population levels in the crops by taking leaves and placing them in a Berlese funnel.

PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2022-09-22

T. palmi has only moderate dispersal potential by itself (it can fly on short distances and it can be easily transported by wind), but is liable to be carried on fruits, or plants for planting of host species, or in packing material. For example, it can be transported over long distances under the calyx of aubergines. For example T. palmi has been intercepted in several EPPO countries on consignments from Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mauritius, and Thailand. An analysis of interceptions of T. palmi in Europe and USA showed that the majority of them have been recorded on ornamentals (e.g. orchid cut flowers), aubergines and Momordica charantia, as well as on plants for planting (Vierbergen, 2001).

PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2022-09-22

Economic impact

T. palmi, a polyphagous feeder with a wide host range, quickly builds up heavy infestations causing severe injuries. Both larvae and adults feed gregariously on leaves (first along the midribs and the veins), stems (particularly at or near the growing tips), flowers (among the petals and developing ovary) and fruits (on the surface), leaving numerous scars and deformities, and finally killing the entire plant. In tropical countries, T. palmi damages outdoor crops but in Japan, large-scale infestations of glasshouses have occurred (for example, on aubergine). In Hawaii (USA), T. palmi damages ornamental orchids. In Guadeloupe, T. palmi has had disastrous economic effects on cucurbit crops (melon, cucumber) and solanaceous crops (aubergine, Capsicum) which could be completely destroyed by this pest. Aubergine exports fell from 5000 tonnes in 1985 to 1600 tonnes in 1986. In Martinique, 37% of the vegetable crops of the two main cooperatives were attacked and 90% of aubergine crops (Guyot, 1988). In India, T. palmi is the vector of groundnut bud necrosis tospovirus, in Japan and Taiwan it vectors watermelon silvery mottle tospovirus (Honda et al., 1989; Yeh et al., 1992; Yeh & Chang, 1995). These viruses are closely related to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), but T. palmi has not yet been demonstrated to vector TSWV. Other viruses which are known to be transmitted by T. palmi are calla lily chlorotic spot virus (Chen et al., 2005), capsicum chlorosis virus (Melzer et al., 2014), melon yellow spot virus (Kato et al., 2007), tomato necrotic ringspot virus (Seepiban et al., 2011), and watermelon bud necrosis virus (Gosh et al., 2021).

Control

T. palmi is difficult to control chemically in the field and especially in glasshouses due to its resistance to some active substances or perhaps because of the inaccessibility of a large proportion of the population as a consequence of a cryptic life cycle and feeding habits (Cannon et al., 2007). Insecticides such as imidacloprid and pyrethroids have been used, but may have serious effects on natural enemies (Nemoto, 1995). In Martinique (Bon & Rhino, 1989), profenofos, avermectin and carbofuran were the most effective insecticides on outdoor vegetables, while oxamyl, carbofuran, NTN, tokuthion and sulprophos gave the best results in cages (Ryckewaert, 1990). However, the majority of these products are highly toxic and not authorized on vegetable crops. In Guadeloupe, numerous chemical tests have been carried out but the results have been generally disappointing (Etienne & Van Waetermeulen, 1989). In trials under glass in Japan, none of the (repeated) insecticide applications gave more than 80% mortality. Supplementary cultural and mechanical methods were required to control the pest (Yoshihara, 1982; Kawai, 1990b). T. palmi populations can be monitored with blue sticky traps or water-tray traps (Layland et al., 1994). 

Many natural enemies have been identified across the world, such as predators belonging to different families (e.g. Anthocoridae (notably Orius spp.), Miridae, Lygaeidae, Berytidae, Coccinellidae, Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Thripidae, Phytoseiidae), a few parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi (Cox et al., 2006). Preliminary studies have been carried out concentrating on Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) (Nagai et al., 1988; Kawai, 1995) and Amblyseius spp. (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) (Kajita, 1986). At present, biological control of T. palmi by releasing predators, parasitoids or entomopathogens is not sufficiently efficient as it concerns mainly open field crops, and it is difficult to breed these beneficials in large quantities. In Japan, Kawai and Kitamura (1987) recommended IPM systems on cucumber in plastic greenhouses. IPM methods including prophylaxis, use of chemicals with specific active ingredients and natural biological control were developed in Martinique in the early 1990s and have enabled reduction of populations to acceptable levels (Ryckewaert, 1991). T. palmi has become rare in open field crops in recent years in the Lesser Antilles and other countries, mainly through the use of natural biological control and by avoiding the use of those pesticides which have a negative effect on beneficials (Ryckewaert, 2014). 

Phytosanitary risk

In the EPPO region, T. palmi presents a serious threat to a wide variety of crops grown under glass, and many interceptions have been reported in this region (Viebergen, 2001). It could possibly establish on field crops in southern areas or in greenhouses of the EPPO region, as occurred for Frankliniella occidentalis (EPPO/CABI, 1996) which was originally considered to present a risk only under glass. Although T. palmi is not apparently a vector of TSWV, it does vector closely related viruses. In view of the situation which developed in Europe with F. occidentalis and TSWV, the vector capabilities of T. palmi merit close attention.

PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2022-09-22

Because T. palmi is difficult to detect at low densities in consignments, inspections should be made during the growing season at the place of production. Alternatively, or additionally, consignments and/or the place of production should be treated against the pest.

REFERENCES 2022-09-22

Bon H de & Rhino B (1989) [Control of Thrips palmi in Martinique]. Agronomie Tropicale 44, 129-136.

Bournier JP (1986) On the geographical distribution of Thrips palmi Karny. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 41(1), 59-61.

Cannon R J C, Matthews L & Collins DW (2007) A review of the pest status and control options for Thrips palmi. Crop protection 26(8), 1089-1098.

Cermeli M & Montagne A (1993) Present situation of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Venezuela. Manejo Integrado de Plagas, No. 29, 22-23.

Chen CC, Chen TC, Lin YH, Yeh SD & Hsu HT (2005) A chlorotic spot disease on calla lilies (Zantedeschia spp.) is caused by a Tospovirus serologically but distantly related to Watermelon silver mottle virus. Plant Disease 89, 440-445.

Cox PD, Matthews L, Jacobson RJ, Cannon R, MacLeod A & Walters KFA (2006) Potential for the use of biological agents for the control of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) outbreaks. Biocontrol Science and Technology 16(9), 871-891.

Denoyes B, Bordat D, Bon H de & Daly P (1986) A new pest of vegetable crops in Martinique: Thrips palmi (Karny). Agronomie Tropicale 41(2), 167-169.

EFSA (2019) Thrips palmi. Pest Report to support ranking of EU candidate priority pests. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2789875

EPPO/CABI (1996) Frankliniella occidentalis. In: Quarantine pests for Europe. 2nd edition (Ed. by Smith, I.M.; McNamara, D.G.; Scott, P.R.; Holderness, M.). CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford, UK.

EPPO (2018) EPPO Standards. Diagnostics. PM 7/3(3) Thrips palmiEPPO Bulletin 48(3), 446–460.

Etienne J & Van Waetermeulen X (1989) Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) et les autres ravageurs de l'aubergine en Guadeloupe. In 25th Annual Meeting CFCS, 1-6 july, 1989, Gosier, Guadeloupe.

Etienne J, Ryckewaert P & Michel B (2015) Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of Guadeloupe and Martinique: updated check-list with new information on their ecology and natural enemies. Florida Entomologist 98(1), 298-304.

FAO (2010) ISPM 27 Diagnostic Protocols for Regulated Pests DP 1: Thrips palmi. IPPC Secretariat, FAO, Rome (IT).

Guyot J (1988) Revue bibliographique et premières observations en Guadeloupe sur Thrips palmiAgronomie 8, 565-576.

Ghosh A, Priti, Mandal B & Dietzgen RG (2021) Progression of watermelon bud necrosis virus infection in its vector, Thrips palmi. Cells 10, 392. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/cells10020392

Hirano C, Yasumi K, Itoh E, Kim CS & Horiike M (1994) [A feeding deterrent for Thrips palmi found in tomato leaves: isolation and identification]. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 38, 109-120.

Honda Y, Kameya-Iwaki M, Hanada K, Tochihara H & Tokashiki I (1989) Occurrence of tomato spotted wilt virus in watermelon in Japan. Technical Bulletin - ASPAC, Food and Fertilizer Technology Center No. 114, 14-19.

Huang LH & Chen CN (2004) Temperature effect on the life history traits of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on eggplant leaf. Plant Protection Bulletin Taipei 46(2), 99-111.

IIE (1992) Distribution Maps of Pests No. 480 (1st revision). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Kajita H (1986) Predation by Amblyseius spp. (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) and Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 21, 482-484.

Karny HH (1925) [Thrips found on tobacco in Java and Sumatra]. Bulletin Deli Proefstation 23, 3-55.

Kato K, Handa K & Kameya-Iwaki M (2007) Melon yellow spot virus: a distinct species of the genus Tospovirus isolated from melon. Phytopathology 90(4), 422-426.

Kawai A (1983) Studies on population ecology of Thrips palmi Karny. 3. Relationship between the density of adults on plants and the number of individuals trapped by sticky traps. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu 29, 87-89.

Kawai A (1985) Studies on population ecology of Thrips palmi Karny. VII. Effect of temperature on population growth. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 29(2), 140-143.

Kawai A (1990a) Life cycle and population dynamics of Thrips palmi. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 23, 282-288.

Kawai A (1990b) Control of Thrips palmi in Japan. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 24, 43-48.

Kawai A (1995) Control of Thrips palmi by Orius spp. on greenhouse eggplant. Applied Entomology and Zoology 30, 1-7.

Kawai A & Kitamura C (1987) Studies on population ecology of Thrips palmi Karny. XV. Evaluation of effectiveness of control measures using a simulation model. Applied Entomology and Zoology 22(3), 292-302.

Layland JK, Upton M & Brown HH (1994) Monitoring and identification of Thrips palmi. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 33, 169-173.

Melzer MJ, Shimabukuro J, Long MH, Nelson SC, Alvarez AM, Borth WB & Hu J S (2014) First report of capsicum chlorosis virus infecting waxflower (Hoya calycina Schlecter) in the United States. Plant Disease 98(4), 571-572. 

Nagai J, Hiramatsu T & Henmi T (1988) Predatory effects of Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on density of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on eggplant. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 32, 300-304.

Nagai H & Tsumuki H (1990) [Search for winter host plants of T. palmi in winter]. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 34, 105-108.

Nemoto H (1995) Pest management systems for eggplant arthropods: a plan to control pest resurgence resulting from the destruction of natural enemies. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 29, 25-29.

Pantoja A, Segarra A, Ruiz H & Medina Gaud S (1988) Thrips palmi: a new insect pest for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 72, 327.

Ryckewaert P (1990) Trials in cages of the effect of some insecticides on Thrips palmi (Karny). Caribbean Food Crops Society, 26th Annual Meeting, July 29 to August 4, 1990, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.

Ryckewaert P & Rhino B (1991) [Control of Thrips palmi: 1990 results]. CIRAD-IRAT, Martinique, 22 p.

Ryckewaert P (2014) Insectes invasifs dans les départements d'outremer : exemples, évolution et situation actuelle. In: AFPP. Colloque Ravageurs et insectes invasifs et émergents, Montpellier, France, 21 octobre 2014, 7 p.

Sakimura K, Nakahara LM & Denmark WA (1986) A thrips, Thrips palmi. Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services No. 280.

Seepiban C, Gajanandana O, Attathom T & Attathom S (2011) Tomato necrotic ringspot virus, a new tospovirus isolated in Thailand. Archives of Virology 156(2), 263-274.

Strassen R zur (1989) [What is Thrips palmi? a new quarantine pest in Europe]. Gesunde Pflanzen 41, 63-67.

Tsumuki H, Nagai K & Kanehisa K (1987) [Cold hardiness of Thrips palmi. I. Survival period of winter and summer populations at low temperatures]. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 31, 328-332.

Vierbergen G (2001) Thrips palmi: pathways and possibilities for spread. EPPO Bulletin 31(2), 169-171.

Yeh SD & Chang TF (1995) Nucleotide sequence of the N gene of watermelon silver mottle virus, a proposed new member of the genus Tospovirus. Phytopathology 85, 58-64.

Yeh SD, Lin YC, Cheng YH, Jih CL, Chen MJ & Chen CC (1992) Identification of tomato spotted wilt-like virus on watermelon in Taiwan. Plant Disease 76, 835-840.

Yoshihara T (1982) [An overview of researches on Thrips palmi in Japan]. Kurume Vegetable Experimental Substation, Kurume, Japan.

CABI and EFSA resources used when preparing this datasheet

CABI Datasheet on Thrips palmi (2021) https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/53745

EFSA (2019) Pest categorisation of Thrips palmi. EFSA Journal 17(2), 5620, 39 p. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5620

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2022-09-22

This datasheet was extensively revised in 2022 by Philippe Ryckewaert, CIRAD, France. His valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

How to cite this datasheet?

EPPO (2022) Thrips palmi. EPPO datasheets on pests recommended for regulation. Available online. https://gd.eppo.int

Datasheet history 2022-09-22

This datasheet was first published in the EPPO Bulletin in 1989 and revised in the two editions of 'Quarantine Pests for Europe' in 1992 and 1997, as well as in 2021. It is now maintained in an electronic format in the EPPO Global Database. The sections on 'Identity', ‘Hosts’, and 'Geographical distribution' are automatically updated from the database. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right.

CABI/EPPO (1992/1997) Quarantine Pests for Europe (1st and 2nd edition). CABI, Wallingford (GB).

EPPO (1989) EPPO data sheet on quarantine organisms no 175: Thrips palmi. EPPO Bulletin 19(4), 717-720.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.1989.tb01167.x