EPPO Global Database

Theobroma cacao(THOCA)

Pests

Organism Type
Rhynchophorus palmarum (RHYCPA) Experimental
* Wattanapongsiri, A. (1966) A revision of the Genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis. Department of Agricultural Science Bulletin, Bangkok, Thailand.
Aleurodicus dispersus (ALEDDI) Host
* Boopathi T (2022) New host plants, natural enemy complex and newly distributed potential areas of exotic spiralling whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in India. Phytoparasitica 50(2), 335-357.
Aleurothrixus trachoides (ALTRTR) Host
Amblypelta cocophaga (AMBPCO) Host
Anastrepha fraterculus (ANSTFR) Host
* Caraballo CJ (1981) Las moscas de frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 (Diptera: Tephritidae) de Venezuela. MSc Dissertation, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, 210 p.

* Hernández Ortiz V, Morales Valles P (2004) Distribución geográfica y plantas hospederas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) en Venezuela Folia Entomológica Mexicana 43(2), 181-189.
Apogonia cribricollis (APOGCR) Host
Bactrocera dorsalis (DACUDO) Host
* Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jinapin JC, Jirasurat M, Krong CK, Leong CTS, Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 47(7), 1-92.
Bactrocera passiflorae (BCTRPA) Host
* Leblanc L (2022) The dacine fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) of Oceania. Insecta Mundi 0948, 1-167. https://journals.flvc.org/mundi/article/view/131965/135549.
Brevipalpus yothersi (BRVPYO) Host
* Escobar ­Garcia HA, de Andrade Jr D, Carrillo D, Ochoa R (2021) Theobroma cacao, a new host for Brevipalpus yothersi (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Peru. Acarologia 61(2), 211­216. https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214427
Ceratitis anonae (CERTAN) Host
* INTERNET
True Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Ceratitis anonae. Specimens. http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/taxoninfo.html?id=56
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratitis capitata (CERTCA) Host
* Liquido NJ, McQuate GT, Hanlin MA, Suiter KA (2020) Host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Version 4.0. Available online at: USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), https://coffhi.cphst.org/
Ceratitis fasciventris (CERTFA) Host
* INTERNET
True Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Ceratitis fasciventris. Specimens. http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/taxoninfo.html?id=63
------- Confirmed host.
Ceratocystis fimbriata (CERAFI) Host
Ceratothripoides brunneus (CRTZBR) Host
Characoma stictigrapta (CHCMST) Host
Colletotrichum fructicola (COLLFC) Host
* Weir BS, Johnston PR, Damm U (2012) The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. Studies in Mycology, 73, 115-180.
Dematophora bunodes (ROSLBU) Host
Dematophora pepo (ROSLPE) Host
Dichocrocis punctiferalis (DICHPU) Host
* Alagar M, Rachana KE, Bhat SK, Rahman S, Rajesh MK (2013) Biology, damage potential and molecular identification of Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee in cocoa. Journal of Plantation Crops, 41(3), 350-356.
Earias biplaga (EARIBI) Host
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato (XYLBFO) Host
* Li Y, Gu X, Kasson MT, Bateman CC, Guo J, Huang YT, Li Q, Rabaglia RJ, Hulcr J (2016) Distribution, host records, and symbiotic fungi of Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in China. Florida Entomologist 99(4), 801-804.

* Schuler H, Witkowski R, van de Vossenberg B, Hoppe B, Mittelbach M, Bukovinszki T, Schwembacher S, van de Meulengraaf B, Lange U, Rode S, Andriolo A (2022) Recent invasion and eradication of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from tropical greenhouses in Europe. Biological Invasions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-022-02929-w
Euwallacea perbrevis (as Theobroma) (EUWAPE) Host
* Smith SM, Gomez DF, Beaver RA, Hulcr J, Cognato AI (2019) Reassessment of the species in the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) complex after the rediscovery of the ‘lost’ type specimen. Insects 10, 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090261
Helopeltis antonii (HELOAN) Host
Lasiodiplodia theobromae (PHYORH) Host
Leptoglossus australis (LEPLAU) Host
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (PHENHI) Host
* Martins dos S. D, Fornazier MJ, Peronti ALBG, Culik MP, Souza CAS, Taques RC, Zanuncio Jr JS, Queiroz RB (2019) Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazil: recent spread, natural enemies, and new hosts. Florida Entomologist 102(2), 438-443.  https://doi.org/10.1653/024.102.0225
------- Confirmed host in Brazil.
Mallodon downesi (MALNDO) Host
Necator salmonicolor (CORTSA) Host
Ootheca mutabilis (OOTHMU) Host
Pantorhytes plutus (PANYPL) Host
Pseudotheraptus devastans (PSDTDE) Host
Pseudotheraptus wayi (PSDTWA) Host
Ricania speculum (RICASC) Host
Scirtothrips dorsalis (SCITDO) Host
* Nakayama K, Lindner MF (2022) Ocorrência do tripes da pimenta (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]) em cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L.). Agrotrópica 34(2), 121 - 130.
Spodoptera frugiperda (LAPHFR) Host
* Montezano DG, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez DR, Roque-Specht VF, Sousa-Silva JC, Paula-Moraes SV, Peterson JA, Hunt T (2018) Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology 26, 286-300.
Spodoptera litura (PRODLI) Host
* Madhu TN,  Thava Prakasa Pandian R,  Elain Apshara S, Bhavishya A, Josephrajkumar A,  Nirmal Kumar BJ, Santhosh Kumar P (2023) New occurrence of the Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation on cocoa in India, The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 77(2), 110-115.
------- Defoliation on cocoa saplings.
Spodoptera ornithogalli (PRODOR) Host
* Sermeno-Chicas JM, Rodriguez-Urrutia EA, Joyce AL, Parada-Berrios FA, Pérez D, Quintanilla-Quintanilla JR (2017) Gusano cuerudo Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée 1852) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en cacao Theobroma cacao L. en El Salvador. Revista Minerva no. 1, 62-72.
Tetranychus mexicanus (TETRME) Host
* Flechtmann CHW & Baker EW (1970) A preliminary report on the Tetranychidae (Acarina) of Brazil. Ann. Entomol. Soco Amer. 63 (I): 156- 163

* Paschoal A (1970) Revisão da família Tetranychidae no Brasil (Arachnida: Acarina). Anais Da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, XXVII, 457–483.

* Flechtmann C & Abreu J (1973) Ácaros Fitófagos do Estado da Bahia, Brasil (Notas preliminares). Ciência e Cultura, 25(3), 244–251.

* Suárez A (2004) Catálogo de ácaros de la provincia de Guantánamo. Fitosanidad, 8(1), 23–31.

* Flechtmann C (1967) Contribuição para o conhecimento dos ácaros de plantas de algumas regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Universidade de Sao Paulo.
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (ARGPLE) Host
* EPPO PRA for Thaumatotibia leucotreta. EPPO, Paris. Available at https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ARGPLE/documents
------- listed by Venette et al. (2003) as a host, but not supported by evidence Considered doubtful.

* Venette R, Davis CEE, DaCosta M, Heisler H & Larson M (2003) Mini Risk Assessment: False codling moth, Thaumatotibia (=Cryptophlebia) leucotreta (Meyrick) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]. University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology, CAPS PRA. 1-30 pp. 
Zeuzera coffeae (ZEUZCO) Host
Bathycoelia thalassina (BATHTA) Major host
Bryocoropsis laticollis (BRYPLA) Major host
Cacao red mottle agent (CCRMO0) Major host
Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV00) Major host
Cacao vein-clearing agent (CCVC00) Major host
Cacao yellow vein banding agent (CCYVB0) Major host
Coccus viridis (COCCVI) Major host
Conopomorpha cramerella (AROCCR) Major host
Distantiella theobroma (DISTTH) Major host
Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (ECDYAU) Major host
* Adamski D & Brown JW (2001) Systematic revision of the Ecdytolopha group of genera (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Grapholitini) in the New World. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement, 58, 86 pp.
------- Confirmed host.

* Nakayama K (2018) Surto de lepidobrocas atacando frutos de cacaueiro. Ilhéus, BA, CEPLAC/CEPEC. Boletim Técnico nº 210, 26 pp.
------- Confirmed host.
Helopeltis bergrothi (HELOBE) Major host
Helopeltis bradyi (HELOBR) Major host
Helopeltis theivora (HELOTH) Major host
Monalonion annulipes (MONAAN) Major host
Monalonion atratum (MONAAT) Major host
Monalonion bondari (MONABO) Major host
Moniliophthora perniciosa (CRNPPE) Major host
* Sousa Filho HR, de Jesus RM, Bezerra MA, Santana GM, de Santana RO (2021) History, dissemination, and field control strategies of cocoa witches’ broom. Plant Pathology 70(9), 1971-1978.
Moniliophthora roreri (MONPRO) Major host
Mussidia nigrivenella (MUSSNV) Major host
* Silvie P (1990) Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Pyralidae, Phycitinae): a little known cotton pest. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 45(4), 323-333.
Nepovirus theobromatis (CONV00) Major host
Planococcoides njalensis (PSECNJ) Major host
Planococcus kenyae (PLANKE) Major host
Planococcus lilacinus (PLANLI) Major host
Rhizoctonia theobromae (ONCOTH) Major host
Sahlbergella singularis (SAHLSI) Major host
Selenothrips rubrocinctus (SLENRU) Major host
* Giard A (1901) Sur un Thrips (Physopus rubrocincta n. sp.) nuisible au cacaoyer.(Thys.). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France  6(15), 263-265.
Stenoma decora (STENDE) Major host
Tiracola plagiata (TIRAPL) Major host
Trachysphaera fructigena (TRACFR) Major host
Tymovirus theobromatis (CYMV00) Major host
Xyleborus ferrugineus (XYLBFE) Major host
Xylosandrus compactus (XYLSCO) Major host
* Asman A, Rosmana A, bin Purung MH, Amiruddin A, Amin N, Sjam S, Dewi VS (2021) The occurrence of Xylosandrus compactus and its associated fungi on cacao from South Sulawesi, Indonesia: A preliminary study of an emerging threat to the cacao industry. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 128(1), 303-309.
------- Confirmed host.

* Dole SA, Cognato AI (2010) Phylogenetic revision of Xylosandrus Reitter (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborina). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 61(7), 451-545.

* Oliveira CM, Flechtmann CAH, Frizzas MR (2008) First record of Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on soursop, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil, with a list of host plants. Coleopterists Bulletin 62(1), 45-48.

* Torrez AA, Imakawa AM, Barbosa ML, Souza LA, Sampaio PD (2022) Traps efficiency in the capture of Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff, 1875)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) during the early development of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke. Research Society and Development 11(1), e48911125186. http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i1.25186
Xylosandrus crassiusculus (XYLBCR) Major host
* Thube SH, Pandian RTP, Josephrajkumar A, Bhavishya A, Nirmal Kumar BJ, Firake DM, Shah V, Madhu TN, Ruzzier E (2022) Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) on cocoa pods (Theobroma cacao L.): matter of bugs and fungi. Insects 13, 809. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090809
------- On cocoa pods (Theobroma cacao), infestation was probably triggered by previous attacks by bugs (Helopeltis theivora - Hemiptera: Miridae).
Xylosandrus morigerus (XYLSMO) Major host