EPPO Datasheet: Premnotrypes latithorax
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae
Common names in English: Andean potato weevil
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Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature
The species was originally described by Pierce (1914) as Trypopremnon latithorax, but Kuschel (1949) synonymized the genus Trypopremnon Pierce with Premnotrypes Pierce, and established the new combination Premnotrypes latithorax. Kuschel (1956) revised the tribe Premnotrypini and provided a Key, later updated by Alcazar & Cisneros (1999), which allow determination of the 12 currently valid species of the genus Premnotrypes.
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EPPO Code: PREMLA
Potato plants are the primary host, with larval development in the tubers and adult feeding on the leaves. Adults have occasionally been seen associated with a number of other plant species, but evidence strongly indicates that the species is oligophagous and can only reproduce and develop successfully on tuber-forming species of Solanum (Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999; Durán Auccatinco, 2001).Host list: Solanum tuberosum, Solanum
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2021-04-01
Premnotrypes latithorax, like other species of the genus attacking potatoes, occurs only in South America, at high altitudes of the Northern Andes (between 2 100 and 4 700 m a.s.l.). The EPPO designation of ‘Andean’ for the group is thus completely equivalent in practice to the EU designation ‘non-European’.
Premnotrypes latithorax is widely distributed in the central highlands of Peru, in Bolivia and in Northern Chile (Aréstigui, 1976; Alcazar & Cisneros, 1999; Yábar Landa, 2014).South America: Bolivia, Chile, Peru
The life-cycle of P. latithorax appears to be basically similar to other Premnotrypes species, though there are differences in detail (Carrasco, 1961; Tisoc Dueñas, 1989; Carvajal Pinto, 1993; Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999). Premnotrypes species pass the dry winter season in the soil as a prepupa, pupa and then over-wintering adult within the pupal cell. When the spring rains start, the adults of the new generation emerge from the soil and feed on the leaves of the potato plants if available, or migrate to other potato fields. Adults remain hidden during the day, sheltered beneath debris or in soil cracks near the base of the potato plants. In the evening they climb to the foliage to feed. Several days after mating, females lay eggs in straw or other plant debris near the potato plant. The newly hatched larvae move into the soil to the developing tubers and bore into them. The larva continues feeding inside the tuber until ready to pupate, after passing through several larval instars (four in P. latithorax). When fully grown, the last instar larva leaves the tuber and prepares an earthen cell for pupation in the surrounding soil. There is one generation per year. Adults may live for six to eight months.
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2021-04-01
Feeding by adults produces semi-circular notches along the edges of leaves. The larvae tunnel within the tubers, causing little externally visible damage. Pupae occur in the soil inside earthen cells.
Note. These symptoms are similar among all Premnotrypes species. Differences with other Andean potato weevils worth mentioning are that adults of Phyrdenus sp. produce circular holes in the leaves and the pupae of Rhigopsidius sp. occur inside the tuber.
Adults of P. latithorax are stout, apterous, weevils about 5-8 mm long. Their colour varies from greyish-brown to dark brown and they have tubercles on pronotum and elytra, which make them difficult to distinguish from the background soil. The eyes are well developed and the rostrum short and broad (the length only about twice the width). A postocular lobe on the anterior margin of prothorax covers part of the eye. They show sexual dimorphism: females larger than males; last ventrite with apical margin acute in females and blunt in males. P. latithorax can be distinguished from other species of Premnotrypes by the following combination of characters: epistome (at apical dorsal part of rostrum) elevated; well-developed superciliary arches (swellings above each eye, like ‘eye-brows’); pronotum with blunt lateral swelling at base (Kuschel, 1956; Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999; Yábar Landa, 2014).
The legless larva and exarate pupa are typical of the Curculionidae. The larva is comma-shaped, creamy-white except the ochreous head, with antennal sensorium cushion-like as it is characteristic of Entiminae (Marvaldi, 2003). Larval characters diagnostic of the genus are given by Emden (1952: paragraphs 6, 54, 55, and 59 of the Key).
Detection and inspection methods
Premnotrypes spp. can be detected by visual inspection. Adults can be seen on the green parts of the plants. Being flightless they only move by walking, and in the field, they can be caught with pitfall traps. They remain hidden at the base of plants during daylight hours and can be detected at night by inspection of the plant foliage; they play dead when disturbed, so they can be collected by shaking the plants over a basin (Yabar Landa, 1988, 1994). Eggs are difficult to detect, protected in straw or plant debris at the base of the plants.
Larvae of Premnotrypes spp. can be detected by inspecting the potato tubers. Because larvae bore inside the tubers, their presence by external inspection requires careful observation. In light-skinned tubers, the damage is indicated by the presence of irregular blackish spots, and in dark-skinned tubers, there may be small pustules indicating the place where the larvae have entered (Yábar Landa, 1988).
Pupae and over-wintering adults occur in the soil. Mature larvae leave the tubers to pupate in the soil, so detection of pupae in the field is done by examining the soil surrounding the plants during and after harvest. Mature larvae, pupae and adults can also be detected below tubers piled in storage and heaping sites (Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999).
A molecular characterization of P. latithorax is available through four gene sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA, the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers, obtained in the context of a phylogenetic analysis of Entiminae (Marvaldi et al., 2018). The sequences are deposited in GenBank (accession codes MH746316, MH746365, MH746416, MH734204) and would allow molecular identification of any life stage of the species. In particular, the COI (barcode) gene could be applied as a molecular tool for quarantine inspection.
PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2021-04-01
Infested tubers have been an important means of spread from field to field, and represent the main potential pathway for transport of P. latithorax in international trade. Larvae of P. latithorax have been intercepted on South American potatoes imported into the USA (Pierce, 1914). Most of the larvae reach maturity and leave the tuber before harvest, but a small proportion of them do not abandon it, so adults can also emerge without rain, in storage conditions, contributing to new infestations or to the spread (e.g., via seed potatoes) of the species (Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999; Kuehne, 2007; Yabar Landa et al., 2011).
PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2021-04-01
The genus Premnotrypes includes the most important weevil species on potatoes in the Andes, which, together with Rhigopsidius tucumanus Heller and Phyrdenus muriceus Germar, are collectively known as the Andean Potato Weevil (APW) complex (Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999; EFSA PLH Panel, 2020). In many areas, Premnotrypes spp. are the most important pests of potatoes, sometimes causing complete destruction of unsprayed crops. The adults feed on foliage and can cause serious damage on young potato plants; there are reports on adults of P. latithorax destroying fields of young potato plants entirely (Aréstigui, 1976). Major damage is caused by the larvae feeding on the tubers, with the consequent loss of their commercial value, and yield reductions for up to 50 % (Ortiz et al., 1996). Larval damage to tubers is especially important when populations are high, and as many as 20 larvae may be found feeding in one tuber. In Peru, 70-100% of unsprayed potato crops may be infested with P. latithorax (Franco et al., 2000).
Control of P. latithorax has been mainly achieved by means of chemical insecticides. In addition to direct monitoring of the crop and chemical control, many other strategies are considered to implement integrated pest management (IPM) against P. latithorax and other APW species, including: biological control, with entomopathogenic fungi or nematodes, use of natural enemies such as predator beetles, use of resistant plants; agricultural control strategies, such as crop rotation, early harvest, shelter traps/bait crop, border application of insecticides and creation of ditches around field. The various control methods and studies testing their efficacy are reviewed by Kuehne (2007).
The potential of P. latithorax and other potato weevils to cause damage in Europe is uncertain, owing to the unusual character of the high montane climate of the tropical Andes, with its extreme diurnal fluctuations in temperature and high solar radiation, with dry, cold winter and rainy, moderately warm spring-summer (Alcázar & Cisneros, 1999). It is likely that pests from such an environment will be preadapted to temperate climates of Europe. Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) (EPPO/CABI, 1996) is an example of a montane species which has shown great adaptability. The Andean potato weevils are likely to establish, spread and cause economic impact in some of the potato-growing areas in Europe, if introduced (EFSA PLH Panel, 2020).
PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2021-04-01
Premnotrypes latithorax belongs to the group of South American pests of potato which justifies post-entry quarantine procedures in the EPPO region, together with equivalent checks before export. Only material for scientific purposes should normally be imported from South America (EPPO, 2021).
Alcázar J & Cisneros F (1999) Taxonomy and bionomics of the Andean potato weevil complex: Premnotrypes spp. and related genera. pp. 141–151. In: The International Potato Centre. 1999. Impact on a Changing World, Program Report 1997–1998, Lima, Peru, 458 pp.
Aréstigui PA (1976) [Potato pests in Andahuaylas-Apurimac]. Revista Peruana de Entomologia 19, 97-98 (in Spanish).
Carrasco FZ (1961) [Systematics and biology of Premnotrypes latithorax]. Revista Peruana de Entomologia 4, 30-43 (in Spanish).
Carvajal Pinto C (1993) [Biology, geographical distribution, population fluctuation and control of the Andes weevil Premnotrypes latithorax in the locality of Aguirre]. Cochabamba, Thesis of the Universidad Mayor de San Simon: 123 pp. (in Spanish).
Durán Auccatinco J (2001) [Integrated Pest Management and its impact on Andean weevil (pest) and diseases in potato crop]. Thesis of the Universidad de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco (Peru). 86 pp. (in Spanish).
EFSA PLH Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Health), Bragard C, Dehnen‐Schmutz K, Di Serio F, Gonthier P, Jacques M‐A, Jaques Miret JA, Justesen AF, Magnusson CS, Milonas P, Navas‐Cortes JA, Parnell S, Potting R, Reignault PL, Thulke H‐H, Van der Werf W, Vicent Civera A, Yuen J, Zappalà L, Czwienczek E, Streissl F & MacLeod A (2020) Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of the Andean Potato Weevil (APW) complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). EFSA Journal 2020;18(7):6176, 38 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6176
Emden FI van (1952) On the taxonomy of Rhynchophora larvae: Adelognatha and Alophinae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Volume 122, pp. 651-795.
EPPO (2021) EPPO Global Database (GD). Available online: https://gd.eppo.int [Accessed: 16 March 2021].
EPPO/CABI (1996) Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In: Quarantine pests for Europe. 2nd edition (Ed. by Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M). CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford, UK.
Franco J, Gandarilla A, Gallo R, Zapata B (2000) Bolivia. In: Transgenic potatoes for the benefit or resource-poor farmers in developing countries. Proceedings of the International Workshop. Manchester, United Kingdom, 5-9 June 2000, pp. 14-17.
Kuehne M (2007) The Andean potato weevil Premnotrypes suturicallus. Ecology and interactions with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. PhD thesis. Fakultät für Agrarwissenschaften der Georg‐August‐Universität Göttingen. Available online: https://ediss.uni-goettingen.de/bitstream/handle/11858/00-1735-0000-000D-F23B-A/kuehne.pdf?sequence=1
Kuschel G (1949) [The Curculionidae of the extreme North of Chile (Coleoptera, Curcul. AP. 6)]. Acta Zoológica Lilloana 8, 5-54 (in Spanish).
Kuschel G (1956) [Revision of the Premnotrypini and additions to the Bagoini]. Boletin, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile 26, 187-235 (in Spanish).
Marvaldi AE (2003) Key to identify larvae of the subfamilies of South American weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 76(4), 603-612.
Marvaldi AE, del Rio MG, Rocamundi N, Pereyra VA & Lanteri AA (2018) A combined molecular and morphological approach to explore the higher phylogeny of entimine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with special reference to South American taxa. Diversity 10, 95, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030095
Ortiz OJ, Alcázar J, Catalán W, Villano W. Cerna V, Fano H & Walker TS (1996) Economic impact of IPM practices on the Andean potato weevil in Peru. In Case studies of the economic impact of CIP - related technology (eds Walker TS & Crissman CC). Lima, International Potato Center: pp. 95-110.
Pierce WD (1914) New potato weevils from Andean South America. Journal of Agricultural Research 1(4), 347-352.
Tisoc Dueñas IO (1989) Biological cycle of Premnotrypes latithorax, in Cusco (Peru), under laboratory conditions. Revista Peruana de Entomología 32, 89-92.
Yábar Landa E (1988) Cultural practices integration for the control of the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.). Revista Latinoamericana de la Papa 1(1), 120-131.
Yábar Landa E (1994) [Ecological management of the Andes weevil]. Lima, RAAA. 119pp (in Spanish).
Yabar Landa E (2014) [Systematic revision and phylogeny of the tribe Premnotrypini Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)]. Doctoral Thesis, PROBIOL, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina). 248 pp. (in Spanish).
Yábar Landa E, García H, Saavedra J, de los Rios H (2011) [Curculionids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) associated with potato tuber under traditional storage conditions in Cuzco, Peru]. Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle 12, 42-47 (in Spanish).
This datasheet was extensively revised in 2021 by Adriana E. Marvaldi (CONICET, División Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina). Her valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged.
How to cite this datasheet?
Datasheet history 2021-04-01
This datasheet was first published in the EPPO Bulletin in 1984 and revised in the two editions of 'Quarantine Pests for Europe' in 1992 and 1997, as well as in 2021. It is now maintained in an electronic format in the EPPO Global Database. The sections on 'Identity', ‘Hosts’, and 'Geographical distribution' are automatically updated from the database. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right.
CABI/EPPO (1992/1997) Quarantine Pests for Europe (1st and 2nd edition). CABI, Wallingford (GB).
EPPO (1984) EPPO Data Sheet on Quarantine Organisms no 143: Premnotrypes spp. (Andean species). EPPO Bulletin 14(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.1984.tb01982.x