EPPO Global Database

Picea abies(PIEAB)

Pests

Organism Type
Pucciniastrum areolatum (as Picea) (PUCIAR) Alternate
Dendrolimus sibiricus (DENDSI) Experimental
* Kirichenko NI, Baranchikov YN, Vidal S (2009) Host plant preference and performance of the potentially invasive Siberian moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus) on European coniferous species. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 11, 247-254.
------- Artificial / potentially intermadiate host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2008) Native and exotic coniferous species in Europe – possible host plants for the potentially invasive Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae). EPPO Bulletin 38, 259-263.
------- Artificial / potentially intermadiate host in Europe (laboratory trial).

* Kirichenko NI, Flament J, Baranchikov YN, Grégoire JC (2011) Larval performances and life cycle completion of the Siberian moth, Dendrolimus sibiricus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), on potential host plants in Europe: a laboratory study on potted trees. European Journal of Forest Research 130(6), 1067-1074.
------- Artificial / potentially intermadiate host in Europe (laboratory trial).
Melampsora medusae (as Picea) (MELMME) Experimental
* Pinon J (1986) Situation de Melampsora medusae en Europe. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 16, 547-551.
------- infection reported after following inoculation studies.
Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidis (as Picea) (MELMMD) Experimental
* Pinon J (1986) Situation de Melampsora medusae en Europe. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 16, 547-551.
------- infection reported after following inoculation studies.
Neofusicoccum laricinum (GUIGLA) Experimental
* Sato K, Yokozawa Y, Shoji T (1963) Studies on the shoot blight disease of larch I. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experimental Station Tokyo 156, 85–137.
Allantophomopsiella pseudotsugae (as Picea) (POTECO) Host
Arceuthobium americanum (as Picea) (AREAM) Host
Arceuthobium douglasii (as Picea) (AREDO) Host
Arceuthobium laricis (as Picea) (ARELA) Host
Arceuthobium pusillum (as Picea) (AREPU) Host
Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (BURSMU) Host
* Chalkin AA, Zinnikov DF, Lyabzina SN, Sinkevich OV (2021) Pests and diseases of forest biocenoses of specially protected natural areas of the Republic of Karelia. Plant Health and Quarantine 2021(2), 9-19.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (BURSXY) Host
Cacopsylla melanoneura (PSYLME) Host
Chionaspis pinifoliae (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/

* Liu T (1987) Biosystematics of the genus Chionaspis (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae) of North America, with emphasis on polymorphism. Masters Theses. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 305 p.; 
* Shour MH & Schuder DL (1987) Host range and geographic distribution of Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley and C. pinifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Indiana Academy of Science 96, 297–304. 
* Gwiazdowski RA, Vea MI, Andersen CJ & Normark BB (2011) Discovery of cryptic species among North American pine-feeding Chionaspis scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London 104(1), 47–62.
Chionaspis pinifoliae (as Picea) (PHECPI) Host
* INTERNET
ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/
Choristoneura fumiferana (CHONFU) Host
* Berthiaume R, Hebert C, Dupont A, Charest M & Bauce É (2020) The spruce budworm, a potential threat for Norway spruce in eastern Canada? The Forestry Chronicle 96(1), 71-76.
Choristoneura fumiferana (as Picea) (CHONFU) Host
* Furniss RL, Carolin VM (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA , Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication no. 1339, 654 pp.
Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli (CHMYAR) Host
* Sinclair WA, Lyon HH (2005) Diseases of trees and shrubs (2nd ed.). Comstock Publishing Associates, 650 pp.
Chrysomyxa himalensis (as Picea) (CHMYHI) Host
Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri (as Picea) (CHMYRH) Host
Coniferiporia sulphurascens (PHELSU) Host
* Wang XW, Jiang JH, Liu SL, Gafforov Y, Zhou LW (2022) Species diversification of the coniferous pathogenic fungal genus Coniferiporia (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) in association with its biogeography and host plants. Phytopathology 112(2), 404-413.
Dendroctonus frontalis (DENCFR) Host
* Hain FP, Duehl AJ, Gardener MJ, Payne TL (2011) Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13-24. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39019
------- 'considered exceptional or nontraditional host that is indiscriminately attacked during an epidemic on preferred hosts but cannot sustain the epidemic. 

* Dodds KJ, Aoki CF, Arango-Velez A, Cancelliere J, D’Amato AW, DiGirolomo MF & Rabaglia RJ (2018) Expansion of southern pine beetle into northeastern forests: Management and impact of a primary bark beetle in a new region. Journal of Forestry, 116(2), 178–191. https://doi.org/10.1093/jofore/fvx009
------- rare host. Trees attacked in Long Island and Connecticut, but it is unknown if they allow reproduction.
Dendroctonus micans (DENCMI) Host
* Grégoire JC (1988) The greater European spruce beetle. In: Dynamics of forest insect populations (Ed. by Berryman A) Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, USA. pp. 455-478.
Dendroctonus rufipennis (DENCRU) Host
Dendroctonus rufipennis (as Picea) (DENCRU) Host
Dendroctonus valens (DENCVA) Host
* Atkinson TH (2018) Bark and ambrosia beetles (US and Canada). Available at: http://www.barkbeetles.info/regional_chklist_target_species.php?lookUp=491 (accessed 29 June 2018)
------- As Picea abies. Occasional host record. No information could be found on whether non-Pinus allow complete development from egg to adult.
Dendrolimus superans (DENDSU) Host
* Kobayashi F,Taketani A (1994) Forest insects. Tokyo, Youkendo, 567 pp. (In Japanese, cited by EFSA PHL 2022).

* EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2022) Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Dendrolimus superans. EFSA Journal 20(8), 7525, 23 pp. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7525
Dothistroma pini (DOTSPI) Host
* Jánošíková‐Hečková Z, Ondrušková E, Barta M, Ostrovský R, Kádasi‐Horáková M, Pastirčáková K, Kobza M, Adamčíková K (2018) The hosts and geographic range of Dothistroma needle blight in Slovakia. Forest Pathology e12421. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12421
Dothistroma septosporum (SCIRPI) Host
* Drenkhan R et al. (2016) Global geographic distribution and host range of Dothistroma species: a comprehensive review. Forest Pathology 46, 408-442.
------- Slightly susceptible.
Gilpinia hercyniae (GILPPO) Host
* Billany DJ (1978) Gilpinia hercyniae (Hertig): a pest of spruce. Forest Record No.117, 11 pp.

* Sabsch R, Schopf R (1990) Oviposition and egg development of Gilpinia hercyniae Htg. (Hym., Diprionidae) on needles of diseased and apparently healthy Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Journal of Applied Entomology 109(3), 274-282.

* Van Driesche RG, LaForest JH, Bargeron CT, Reardon RC, and Herlihy M (2013) Forest pest insects in North America: a photographic guide. USDA Forest Service Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team FHTET-2012-02, 702 pp.
Gnathotrichus sulcatus (as Pinaceae) (GNAHSU) Host
Heterobasidion irregulare (HETEIR) Host
* Lind M, Dalman K, Stenlid J, Karlsson B, Olson Å (2007) Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting virulence in the basidiomycete Heterobasidion annosum s.l. Curr Genet (2007) 52:35–44
------- susceptibility demonstrated in inoculation studies
Heterobasidion irregulare (as Picea) (HETEIR) Host
Ips cembrae (IPSXCE) Host
* Holuša J, Kula E, Wewiora F, Lukášová K (2014) Flight activity, within the trap tree abundance and overwintering of the larch bark beetle (Ips cembrae) in Czech Republic. Šumarski list, 138 (1-2), 19-27.
------- Occasional host.
Ips hauseri (as Picea) (IPSXHA) Host
* Douglas HB, Cognato AI, Grebennikov V, Savard K (2019) Dichotomous and matrix-based keys to the Ips bark beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 38, 234 pp. http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/dcgs_38/factsheets/Ips_hauseri.pdf
Ips sexdentatus (IPSXSE) Host
* Izhevsky SS, Nikitsky NB, Volkov OG, Dolgin MM (2005) [Illustrated guide to coleopteran - xylophagous pests of forests and timber of Russia]. Tula, Grif and Co, 220 pp (in Russian).
Ips subelongatus (as Picea) (IPSXFA) Host
Monochamus alternatus (MONCAL) Host
* Lin MY, Perissinotto R, Clennell L (2021) Census of the longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae and Vesperidae) of the Macau SAR, China. ZooKeys 1049, 79-161. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1049.65558
------- As Picea excelsa, larval host.
Monochamus galloprovincialis (as Picea) (MONCGA) Host
Monochamus impluviatus (as Picea) (MONCIM) Host
* Pavlovskii EN, Shtakelberg AA (Eds.) (1955) Forest pests. Guide. V 2, p. 422–1097. Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow-Leningrad (URSS) (in Russian). 

* Plavilshchikov NN (1958) Monochamus impluviatus Motsch. Siberian speckled sawyer. In Fauna of the USSR. Coleoptera. V. XXIII. Part I. Longhorn Beetles. Part 3. Sub-family Lamiinae. Part I., pp. 526–528. Nauka Publishing House, Leningrad (URSS) (in Russian).  
Monochamus marmorator (as Picea) (MONCMR) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
Monochamus nitens (as Picea) (MONCNI) Host
* Akbulut S, Togashi K & Linit MJ (2017) Cerambycids as plant disease vectors with special reference to pine wilt. In Cerambycidae of the world, pp. 209-252. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Monochamus scutellatus (as Picea) (MONCST) Host
* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
Monochamus sutor (as Picea) (MONCSU) Host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Monochamus titillator (as Picea) (MONCTI) Host
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x

* Duffy EAJ (1960) A monograph of the immature stages of neotropical timber beetles. London: British Museum (Natural History), 327 pp.
Neonectria neomacrospora (NECTMA) Host
* Talgø V, Brurberg MB, Stensvand A (2009) Neonectria canker on true fir and spruce in Norway. Proceedings of the 9th International Christmas Tree Research and Extension Conference (Corvallis, Puyallup, US, 2009-09-13/18), 58-62.
Operophtera brumata (CHEIBR) Host
Phytophthora cinnamomi (as Pinaceae) (PHYTCN) Host
Pissodes castaneus (PISONO) Host
Pissodes nemorensis (PISONE) Host
* Hard  JS (1962) Bionomic investigations of the northern pine weevil, Pissodes approximatus Hopk. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). MSc thesis, New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Pissodes strobi (PISOST) Host
* Boucher D, Mauffette Y, Lavallée R (2001) Biological performance of the white pine weevil in different host species and in two ecological regions of southern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31, 2026-2034.

* Humble LM, Humphreys N, Van Sickle GA (1994) Distribution and hosts of the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), in Canada. pp. 68-75. In AIfaro RI, Kiss G, Fraser RG (eds) The white pine weevil: biology, damage and management. Proceedings of a symposium held January 19-21, 1994 in Richmond, British Columbia. FRDA Report No. 226. 75 pp.
------- breeding host

* Laffin R, Langor D, Sperling F (2004) Population structure and gene flow in the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(5), 949-956.

* Whitehill JGA, Bohlmann J (2019) A molecular and genomic reference system for conifer defence against insects. Plant Cell and Environment 42(10), 2844-2859.
Polygraphus proximus (POLGPR) Host
* Chilahsaeva EA (2008) First record of Polygraphus proximus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in Moscow Province. Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists 113(6), 39-42. [In Russian]
Pristiphora abietina (as Picea) (PRISAB) Host
Sirex noctilio (as Picea) (SIRXNO) Host
Tetropium gracilicorne (as Picea) (TETOGR) Host
Trichoferus campestris (as Picea) (HESOCA) Host
* Iwata R & Yamada F (1990) Notes on the biology of Hesperophanes campestris, a drywood borer in Japan. Material und Organismen 25, 305–313.
------- Living host.
Trioza apicalis (TRIZAP) Host
Xylosandrus germanus (XYLBGE) Host
Xylosandrus germanus (as Picea) (XYLBGE) Host
Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (as Picea) (BURSMU) Major host
Gremmeniella abietina (GREMAB) Major host
* Kaitera J, Mäkitalo K, Hantula J (2015) Incidence of Gremmeniella abietina in planted seedlings of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris in northern Finland. Forest Pathology 45(1), 14-20. 

* Punithalingam E, Gibson IAS (1973) Gremmeniella abietina. CMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria no. 369. CABI, Wallingford (GB). 

* Sinclair WA & Lyon HH (2005) Diseases of Trees and Shrubs (No. Ed. 2). Comstock Publishing Associates. 650 pp.
Ips amitinus (IPSXAM) Major host
* Pavlovskij EN (1955) Vrediteli lesa [Forest pests]. Isd. Akad. Nauk SSSR Moskva [in Russian]. 

* Pfeffer A (1955) Fauna ČSR, Kůrovci – Scolytoidea [Bark beetles – Scolytoidea]. Nakl. ČAV Praha [in Czech].

* Witrylak W (2008) Studies of the biology, ecology, phenology, and economic importance of Ips amitinus (Eichh.) (Col., Scolytidae) in experimental forests of Krynica (Beskid Sadecki, southern Poland). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Silvarum Colendarum Ratio et Industria Lignaria, 7 (1), 75-92.
Ips duplicatus (IPSXDU) Major host
* Holuša J, Grodzki W (2008) Occurrence of Ips duplicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) on pines (Pinus sp.) in the Czech Republic and southern Poland–Short communication. Journal of Forest Science 54(5), 234-236.
Ips typographus (IPSXTY) Major host
Monochamus saltuarius (MONCSL) Major host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Monochamus saltuarius (as Picea) (MONCSL) Major host
* Lim J, Jung S-Y, Lim J-S, Jang J, Kim K-M, Lee Y-M, Lee B-W (2014) A review of host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea) with new host records for fourteen Cerambycids, including the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), in Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 53(2), 111-133.
Monochamus sutor (MONCSU) Major host
Monochamus urussovii (as Picea) (MONCUR) Major host
Orgyia leucostigma (as Picea) (HEMELE) Major host
* Heppner JB (2003) Lepidoptera of Florida. Part 1. Introduction and catalog. Volume 17 of Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Division of Plant Industry. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Gainesville, Florida. 670 pp

* Maier CT, Lemmon CR, Fengler JM, Schweitzer DF, Reardon RC, (2004) Caterpillars on the Foliage of Conifers in the Northeastern United States. Morgantown, WV. USDA Forest Service. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. FHTET-2004-01. March 2004. 151 p.
Pucciniastrum areolatum (PUCIAR) Major host
* Zhang K, Kaitera J, Samils B, Olson Å (2022) Temporal and spatial dispersal of Thekopsora areolata basidiospores, aeciospores, and urediniospores. Plant Pathology 71(3), 668-683.
Sirococcus tsugae (SIROTS) Non-host
* Pirronitto S, Charlier A, Claessens H,  Schmitz S (2021) Pathogenicity of Sirococcus tsugae on major coniferous tree species of Belgian forest. Forest Pathology, 51(3), e12689.
-------  two-year-old seedlings not suceptible in inoculation studies.