EPPO Datasheet: Bactrocera zonata
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae
Other scientific names: Dacus zonatus (Saunders), Dasyneura zonata Saunders, Rivellia persicae Bigot, Strumeta zonata (Saunders)
Common names in English: guava fruit fly, peach fruit fly
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EPPO Categorization: A2 list
EU Categorization: A1 Quarantine pest (Annex II A)
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EPPO Code: DACUZO
Bactrocera zonata is a polyphagous species reported from a large range of commercial and wild hosts (Allwood et al., 1999). The range of B. zonata in Africa, where it was introduced, is much more restricted than in its native area but includes a number of commercially important fruits. The USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI) (Culliney et al., 2017) provides an extensive host list with detailed references.Host list: Abelmoschus esculentus, Aegle marmelos, Afzelia xylocarpa, Annona reticulata, Annona squamosa, Careya arborea, Carica papaya, Citrullus lanatus, Citrus aurantium, Citrus limon, Citrus paradisi, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita sp., Cydonia oblonga, Diospyros sp., Elaeocarpus hygrophilus, Eriobotrya japonica, Ficus carica, Grewia asiatica, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa acutangula, Malpighia emarginata, Malus domestica, Mangifera indica, Manilkara zapota, Mimusops elengi, Momordica charantia, Persea americana, Phoenix dactylifera, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus persica, Psidium cattleyanum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Putranjiva roxburghii, Pyrus communis, Pyrus ussuriensis, Syzygium jambos, Syzygium samarangense, Terminalia catappa, Ziziphus jujuba, Ziziphus mauritiana
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2021-04-27
Bactrocera zonata is an Asian species widespread on the Indian subcontinent and into Southeast Asia. It is also widely distributed in the Middle East (Iran, Iraq) and on the Arabian Peninsula. It was introduced to Africa where it is currently limited to Egypt, Libya and Sudan in the northeast of mainland Africa, as well as on the islands of Mauritius and Reunion in the Western Indian Ocean. The occurrence in Israel is in isolated areas.EPPO Region: Israel
Africa: Egypt, Libya, Mauritius, Reunion, Sudan
Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen
The general life cycle is similar to those of other Bactrocera species infesting fruits: eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit. Three larval stages develop inside the fruit, feeding on the plant tissue. Once mature the third instar larva will leave the fruit, dig down into the soil and turn into a pupa enclosed in a puparium. The adult fly will emerge from the puparium. Based on experiments conducted in La Réunion Bactrocera zonata can complete its life cycle in about 61 days at 25°C (Duyck et al., 2007). Females start laying eggs in fruit between 2 and 3 weeks after adult emergence. The maximum number of eggs laid per day by one female is 13 (Duyck et al., 2007). The total number of eggs laid in a lifetime of a female was calculated to be 303 (Duyck et al., 2007). The total duration of the larval stages varies from 4 to 30 days at 35°C and 15°C respectively (Duyck et al., 2004). According to Qureshi et al. (1993) the immature stages cannot develop at temperatures below 15°C. Once mature the third instar larvae burrow into the soil where they pupate. In areas where winter conditions occur, the winter is passed in the pupal stage according to Rahman et al. (1993). The pupal development takes 8 and 53 days, at 35°C and 15°C respectively (Duyck et al., 2004). Females of B. zonata can live for up to 18 weeks.
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2021-04-27
Attacked fruit have tiny oviposition punctures, but these and other symptoms of damage are often difficult to detect in the early stages of infestation. Considerable damage may occur inside the fruit before symptoms are visible externally, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting.
Fruit fly larvae in general have a typical shape, i.e., cylindrical maggot-shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and somewhat recurved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, and flattened caudal end. Their length varies from 5 to 15 mm. The 3rd-instar larva has been described by Carroll et al. (2004). White & Elson-Harris (1992) provide a key to 3rd-instar larvae which is useful for an identification to genus level. A key to this and other tephritids for the 3rd-instar larvae is available in Balmès & Mouttet (2017).
Adult (after diagnostic description given by Drew & Romig (2013) with additional character states by White, 2006)
Face fulvous with a pair of medium-sized oval black spots; postpronotal lobes and notopleura yellow; scutum red-brown with pale fuscous patterning posteriorly; medium-width parallel-sided lateral postsutural yellow vittae ending at or just behind intra-alar seta; medial postsutural yellow vitta absent; mesopleural stripe reaching to or almost to anterior notopleural seta dorsally; scutellum yellow (except for basal dark margin); legs with all segments entirely fulvous except apices of femora red-brown and hind tibiae pale fuscous to fuscous; wing with cells bc and c colourless, and entirely devoid of microtrichia; a narrow fuscous costal band confluent with R2+3 and ending at apex of this vein, small oval fuscous spots across apex of R4+5; anal streak absent, at most reduced to a pale tint within cell cup; supernumerary lobe of medium development; abdominal terga III-V red-brown with a ‘T’ pattern consisting of a narrow transverse black band across anterior margin of tergum III (often broken in the central region) and narrow medial longitudinal black band over all three terga (often reduced to a stripe over parts of terga IV and V), narrow anterolateral fuscous corners of terga IV and V, a pair of oval red-brown shining spots on tergum V.
As for male in the general body colour patterns. Supernumerary lobe weak; pecten absent from abdominal tergum III. Ovipositor basal segment red-brown, dorsoventrally compressed and tapering posteriorly in dorsal view; aculeus apex needle shaped.
A diagnostic protocol for this species has been published by EPPO (2013).
DNA barcoding may be used for the molecular identification of B. zonata, however, it should be noted the Barcoding Index Number Systems (BINs) in which this species is represented, also include a few unidentified / possibly misidentified reference sequences. Sequences are available in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and in EPPO-Q-Bank.
Detection and inspection methods
Males are attracted to methyl eugenol. Both sexes can be monitored by traps baited with protein-based attractants. An EPPO Standard PM 9/011 (1) Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control includes details on trapping (EPPO, 2010). Detection is also possible by examination of fruit for oviposition punctures and then rearing the larvae through to the adult stage.
PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2021-04-27
Transport of infested fruits is the main means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfested areas. The natural dispersal ability of B. zonata is unclear. Qureshi et al. (1975) report records of up to 40 km of spread by individual flies in experiments with sterile males. This seems to be the maximum and possibly a rare occurrence as Hicks et al. (2019) recently published a review stating that long distance dispersal (50-100 km) for several Bactrocera species is largely based on erroneous citations. Dispersal up to 2 km is considered more typical.
PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2021-04-27
B. zonata is polyphagous, but is particularly a pest of peach, mango and guava. The impact of B. zonata appears to be variable according to the region and presence or absence of other polyphagous species. In Egypt, losses can be substantial, especially on mangoes, citrus and peaches reaching levels of 20% (Cayol et al., 2002; Saafan et al., 2005). In Pakistan and northern parts of India B. zonata is considered more important than Bactrocera dorsalis (Qureshi et al., 1991; Kapoor, 1993) causing major losses in peach, apricot, guava and figs; while in Sri Lanka it does not seem to be an important pest (Tsuruta et al., 1997). Siddiqui et al. (2003) reports damage up to 50% to guava in Pakistan.
In countries where the pest is present, it was reported that B. zonata could outcompete other tephritid fruit fly species such as Ceratitis capitata (Duyck et al., 2007).
Management for this species includes the general control measures for Bactrocera spp. (see Vargas et al. 2015 for an overview of management options). These include sanitation (to gather all fallen and infested host fruits and destroy them). Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. Bait sprays work on the principle that both male and female tephritids are strongly attracted to a protein source from which ammonia emanates. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays in that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies and other beneficials. Singh & Sharma (2016) report on the positive impact of such an integrated pest management (IPM) program (including ploughing, sanitation, bait sprays and male annihilation technique) against B. zonata (together with B. dorsalis) on Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus deliciosa) in Punjab (India).
Bactrocera zonata is a known pest of several commercial fruit crops in the area where it is present. It can be moved in trade with infested fruit. With the isolated occurrences in Israel, B. zonata is already present in the EPPO region. EFSA analyzed the distribution models published for B. zonata and concluded that several southern parts of the EPPO region, around the Mediterranean are climatically suitable for potential establishment (Baker et al., 2019). Transient populations could also have impacts on export of host fruit from the EPPO region. EFSA compiled a pest report to support the ranking of Bactrocera zonata as a priority pest for the EU (Baker et al., 2019).
PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2021-04-27
Consignments of fruits from countries or regions where B. zonata occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. Possible measures include that such fruits should come from an area where B. zonata does not occur, or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection in the 3 months before harvest. Plants transported with roots from countries or regions where B. zonata occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia. The plants should not carry fruits.
Procedures for official control aiming to monitor, contain and eradicate Bactrocera zonata are described in the EPPO Standard PM 9/011 (1) Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control (EPPO, 2010).
Allwood AJ, Chinajariyawong A, Drew RAI, Hamacek EL, Hancock DL, Hengsawad C, Jipanin CJ, Jirasurat M, Kong Krong C, Kritsaneepaiboon S, Leong CTS & Vijaysegaran S (1999) Host plant records for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South East Asia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology suppl 7, 1-92.
Baker R, Gilioli G, Bering C, Candiani D, Gogin A, Kaluski T, Kinkar M, Mosbach-Schulz O, Neri FM, Preti S, Rosace MC, Siligato R, Stancanelli G & Tramontini S (2019). Bactrocera zonata Pest report to support ranking of EU candidate priority pests. European Food Safety Authority, 39pp.
Balmès V & Mouttet R (2017) Development and validation of a simplified morphological identification key for larvae of tephritid species most commonly intercepted at import in Europe. EPPO Bulletin 47, 91-99.
Carroll LE, Norrbom AL, Dallwitz MJ & Thompson FC (2004) Pest fruit flies of the world – larvae. Version 9th April 2019. https://www.delta-intkey.com/ffl/www/bac_zona.htm [accessed 22/11/2020]
Cayol JP, Roessler Y, Weiss M, Bahdousheh M, Omari M, Hamalawi M & Almughayyar A (2002) Fruit fly control and monitoring in the Near East: shared concern in a regional transboundary problem, in: Barnes, B.N. (Ed.), 6th International fruit fly symposium. Isteg scientific publications, Stellenbosch, South Africa, pp. 155-171
Culliney TW, Liquido NJ, McQuate GM, Hanlin MA, Tateno APK, Lee KLK, Birnbaum AL, Ching AJ, Nakamichi KA, Inskeep JR & Marnell SA (2017). A review of recorded host plants of peach fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.3. Available online at: USDA Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), Edition 3.0, https://coffhi.cphst.org/ [accessed 22nd November 2020]
Drew RAI & Romig MC (2013) Tropical Fruit Flies of South-East Asia. CABI, Wallingford (UK), vii+653pp.
Duyck PF, Sterlin JF & Quilici S (2004) Survival and development of different life stages of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures compared to other fruit fly species. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94, 89-93.
Duyck PF, David P & Quilici S (2007) Can more K-selected species be better invaders? A case study of fruit flies in La Reunion. Diversity and Distributions 13, 535-543
EPPO (2010) PM 9/11 (1): Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control. EPPO Bulletin 40, 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2010.02421.x
EPPO (2013) PM 7/114 (1) Bactrocera zonata. EPPO Bulletin 43, 412-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12058
Hicks CB, Bloem K, Pallipparambil GR & Hartzog HM (2019) Reported long-distance flight of the invasive Oriental fruit fly and its trade implications. In Area-Wide Management of Fruit Flies (eds Pérez-Staples D, Diaz-Fleischer F, Montoya P. & Vera MT), pp. 9-26. CRC Press, Boca Raton (USA)
Kapoor VC (1993) Indian Fruit Flies (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae). International Science Publisher, New York (USA), 228pp.
Qureshi ZA, Ashraf M, Bughio AR & Siddiqui QH (1975) Population fluctuation and dispersal studies of the fruit fly, Dacus zonatus Saunders. International Atomic Energy Agency; Food and Agriculture Organization: Sterility principle for insect control 1974. Proceedings of the Symposium on the sterility principle for insect control, Innsbruck, pp.
Qureshi ZA, Hussain T & Siddiqui QH (1991) Relative preference of mango varieties by Dacus zonatus and D. dorsalis. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 23, 85–87.
Qureshi Z, Hussain T, Carey JR & Dowell RV (1993) Effects of temperature on development of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 69, 71-76.
Rahman O, Rahman S & Agarwal ML (1993) Biology and immature stage of Dacus (Bactrocera) zonatus (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology 40, 45-52.
Saafan MH, Fod SM & Abdel-Hafez TA (2005) Ecological studies of flies on different hosts at Fayoum Governorate. 3 - Ecological studies of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Peach fruit fly, Bectrocera zonata (Saund.) in apricot orchards. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83,
Siddiqui QH, Ahmad N, Shah Rashdi SMM & Niazi S (2003) Effect of time of the day and trap height on the catches of peach/guava fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) through Male Annihilation Technique. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2, 228-232.
Singh S & Sharma D (2016) Integrated pest management for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) on Kinnow mandarin in the Indian Punjab. Proceedings of the 9th ISFFEI, 172-183.
Tsuruta K, White IM, Bandara HMJ, Rajapakse H, Sundaraperuma SAH, Kahawatta SBMUC & Rajapakse GBJP (1997) A preliminary notes on the host-plants of fruit flies of the tribe Dacini (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Sri Lanka. Esakia 37, 149-160.
Vargas RI, Pinero JC & Leblanc L (2015) An overview of pest species of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management with a focus on the Pacific region. Insects 6, 297-318.
White IM (2006) Taxonomy of the Dacina (Diptera: Tephritidae) of Africa and the Middle East. African Entomology Memoir 2, 156pp.
White IM & Elson-Harris MM (1992) Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. CAB International, Wallingford (UK), xii+601pp
CABI resources used when preparing this datasheet
CABI Datasheet on Pest https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/17694
This datasheet was extensively revised in 2021 by Dr M. De Meyer. His valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged.
How to cite this datasheet?
Datasheet history 2021-04-28
This datasheet was first published in the EPPO Bulletin in 1983 and revised in the two editions of 'Quarantine Pests for Europe' in 1992 and 1997, as well as in 2005 and 2021. It is now maintained in an electronic format in the EPPO Global Database. The sections on 'Identity', ‘Hosts’, and 'Geographical distribution' are automatically updated from the database. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right.
CABI/EPPO (1992/1997) Quarantine Pests for Europe (1st and 2nd edition). CABI, Wallingford (GB).
EPPO (1983) Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 41, Trypetidae (non-European). EPPO Bulletin 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.1983.tb01715.x
EPPO (2005) Data sheets on quarantine pests. Bactrocera zonata. EPPO Bulletin 35(3), 371-373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2005.00848.x