EPPO Datasheet: Anoplophora chinensis
Taxonomic position: Animalia: Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Other scientific names: Anoplophora macularia (Breuning), Anoplophora malasiaca (Thomson), Calloplophora macularia Thomson, Cerambyx chinensis Förster, Cerambyx farinosus Houttuyn, Cerambyx punctator Olivier, Melanauster chinensis var. macularius Bates, Melanauster chinensis Thomson, Melanauster macularius (Kolbe)
Common names in English: black and white longhorn, citrus long-horned beetle, citrus longhorn, citrus root cerambycid, white-spotted longicorn beetle
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Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature
Anoplophora chinensis is currently a single taxonomic entity. In the past some authors referred to Anoplophora malasiaca (Thomson), but in line with the revised taxonomy of the genus Anoplophora which occurred in 2002, A. malasiaca is synonymized with A. chinensis (Lingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002; Wang, 2017). However, despite the revision of the genus Anoplophora, the name A. malasiaca is still used in Japan (Iwaizumi, 2016; Fujiwara-Tsujii et al., 2019; Yasuda et al., 2020).
EU Categorization: Emergency measures, A2 Quarantine pest (Annex II B)
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EPPO Code: ANOLCN
Anoplophora chinensis is polyphagous on woody hosts, having been recorded on many living plants belonging to more than 30 families (Haack et al., 2010).
In Asia, A. chinensis is a serious pest of citrus orchards (Mitomi et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1997) and has a wider host range which also includes conifers in the genera Pinus and Cryptomeria (Wang & Chen, 1984; Lingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002).
In Europe, Acer has been indicated as the most commonly infested genus, followed by Betula and Corylus (Haack et al., 2010). In Italy, A. chinensis primarily attacks species of Acer spp., Betula spp., Carpinus spp., Corylus spp., Platanus spp. and Prunus spp. (almost exclusively Prunus laurocerasus) (Cavagna et al., 2013).
Damage has also been found on species of Aesculus spp., Alnus spp, Citrus spp., Cotoneaster spp., Crataegus spp., Fagus spp., Lagerstroemia spp., Malus spp., Populus spp., Pyrus spp., Rosa spp., Salix spp., Quercus spp. and Ulmus spp. (Maspero et al., 2007; EFSA, 2019; Regione Lombardia, 2020a).Host list: Acacia decurrens, Acacia, Acer campestre, Acer negundo, Acer oblongum, Acer palmatum, Acer pictum subsp. mono, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer saccharinum, Acer, Aesculus hippocastanum, Aesculus, Albizia julibrissin, Albizia, Allocasuarina verticillata, Alnus firma var. multinervis, Alnus firma, Alnus hirsuta, Alnus maximowiczii, Alnus sieboldiana, Alnus, Aralia cordata, Aralia, Atalantia buxifolia, Betula pendula, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Betula platyphylla, Betula, Broussonetia papyrifera, Brucea javanica, Cajanus cajan, Cajanus, Camellia oleifera, Camellia, Carpinus betulus, Carpinus laxiflora, Carpinus, Carya illinoinensis, Castanea crenata, Castanea, Castanopsis sieboldii, Castanopsis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Casuarina, Catalpa, Cercis, Chaenomeles, Citrus aurantiifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus junos, Citrus limon, Citrus maxima, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Citrus unshiu, Citrus x limonia, Citrus x nobilis, Citrus, Cornus, Corylus avellana, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cryptomeria japonica, Elaeagnus multiflora, Elaeagnus umbellata, Elaeagnus, Eriobotrya japonica, Eriobotrya, Fagus crenata, Fagus sylvatica, Fagus, Ficus carica, Ficus, Fortunella margarita, Fortunella, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus, Grevillea, Hedera rhombea, Hedera, Hibiscus mutabilis, Hibiscus syriacus, Hibiscus, Ilex chinensis, Ilex, Juglans mandshurica, Juglans, Lagerstroemia indica, Lagerstroemia, Lindera praecox, Lindera, Liquidambar, Litchi chinensis, Litchi, Maackia amurensis, Maackia, Machilus thunbergii, Mallotus japonicus, Mallotus, Malus asiatica, Malus domestica, Malus sylvestris, Malus, Melia azedarach, Melia, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Morus bombycis, Morus, Olea europaea, Olea, Ostrya, Persea, Platanus occidentalis, Platanus orientalis, Platanus x hispanica, Platanus, Poncirus trifoliata, Poncirus, Populus alba, Populus maximowiczii, Populus nigra, Populus sieboldii, Populus tomentosa, Populus, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus laurocerasus, Prunus x yedoensis, Prunus, Psidium guajava, Psidium, Punica granatum, Pyracantha angustifolia, Pyracantha, Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta, Pyrus pyrifolia, Pyrus ussuriensis, Pyrus, Quercus acutissima, Quercus glauca, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Quercus serrata, Quercus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Robinia, Rosa multiflora, Rosa rugosa, Rosa, Rubus microphyllus, Rubus palmatus, Rubus, Sageretia, Salix babylonica, Salix gracilistyla, Salix integra, Salix koriyanagi, Salix pierotii, Salix, Sambucus, Sapium, Sophora, Sorbus, Stranvaesia, Styrax japonicus, Toona, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, Triadica sebifera, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Ulmus, Vaccinium, Vernicia fordii, Vernicia, Viburnum, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Zelkova, Ziziphus
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 2020-10-21
Anoplophora chinensis is native to Asia. This species occurs primarily in China, Japan and the Korean peninsula and it is also reported in Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia (Gressitt, 1951; Lingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002).
In 1999 and 2001, A. chinensis was found in the USA and was considered eradicated in 2005. Before this, in A. chinensis was only reported to occur in the USA in Hawaii (Sorauer, 1954; EPPO, 1999; Gyeltshen & Hodges, 2005).
In the EPPO region, this species was first reported in 1980 in the Netherlands (Haack et al., 2010) and several outbreaks occurred from 2000 to the present day. In Italy, A. chinensis was detected for the first time in 2000 in Lombardy Region, later it was reported in Lazio Region (2008) and in Tuscany Region (2014 and 2017). In some outbreaks A. chinensis has been eradicated, in others containment measures are in place (Colombo & Limonta, 2001; EPPO, 2019).
A. chinensis has been reported and subsequently eradicated in Netherlands (2003, eradicated in 2010), Germany (2008, eradicated in 2017), Denmark (2011, eradicated in 2015) and Switzerland (2014, eradicated in 2019) (EFSA, 2019; EPPO, 2020a).
This beetle has also been reported in France (2003 and 2008), Croatia (2007) and Turkey (2015) where eradication measures are in place (EPPO, 2020a).EPPO Region: Croatia, France (mainland), Italy (mainland), Turkey
Asia: China (Anhui, Aomen (Macau), Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xianggang (Hong Kong), Xizhang, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Indonesia (Sumatra), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Archipelago, Shikoku), Korea Dem. People's Republic, Korea, Republic, Malaysia (West), Myanmar, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam
Anoplophora chinensis generally completes its life cycle in one year, however occasionally the lifecycle can take two years to complete (Haack et al., 2010). Adults can be observed from May to October with a peak emergence usually from May to July. However, if the environmental conditions are optimal, adults can be observed until December. Newly emerged adults undertake maturation feeding for 10-15 days on leaves, twigs, petioles and bark before mate-finding and copulation occurs (Maspero et al., 2007; Haack et al., 2010; EPPO, 2013; Wang, 2017).
After copulation the females lays eggs, one by one, under the bark of the lower trunk, on exposed roots and along root collar region. At the time of oviposition, they make ‘T-shaped’ incisions with their mandibles on the bark of the host plant, in order to be able to introduce the ovipositor and lay the eggs. Females lay an average of 70 eggs in their lifetimes (Haack et al., 2010; Wang, 2017).
Larvae dig long feeding tunnels in both trunks and exposed roots, initially in the cambial region and later enter the woody tissues of the lowest portions of the trunk and roots, in the heartwood and sapwood (Haack et al., 2010).
Most individuals of A. chinensis overwinter as larvae at various stage of their development, depending on the egg laying period. The mature overwintering larvae pupate usually during spring (Maspero et al., 2007; Haack et al., 2010).
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION 2020-10-21
Several symptoms may indicate that a host is infested with A. chinensis. The presence of larvae inside the wood is revealed by frass and woodpulp expelled from the trunk (visible near the collar) and emerging roots (Haack et al., 2010; Vukadin & Hrašovec, 2010; Ciampitti & Cavagna, 2013; EFSA, 2019).
Circular exit holes (usually 10-15 mm) made by emerging adults can be observed at the base of the trunk and on the emerging roots of host plants; another symptom of adults infestation are the ‘T-shaped’ oviposition incisions (Haack et al., 2010; Ciampitti & Cavagna, 2013), however they are very difficult to find without a thorough visual inspection.
Typical symptoms of the presence of adults are the signs of feeding on twigs and suckers, as well as wilting foliage, stem discoloration and branch desiccation (Haack et al., 2010; Ciampitti & Cavagna, 2013; EFSA, 2019).
About 5 mm long, elongate, subcylindrical and tapering towards both ends. Creamy-white but towards hatching gradually turning yellowish-brown (Lieu, 1945).
The larva is an elongate, cylindrical, legless grub. It is creamy-white, with some yellow, chitinized patterns on the prothorax. It ranges from about 5 mm long for the newly hatched larvae up to about 50 mm long for the mature larvae. The head is brown, prognathous and usually retracted into the prothorax. The prothorax is always larger than the abdomen, meso- and metathorax and about twice the width of the head. A distinct pigmented band is present anterior to the pronotal shield. The antennae are very short, three-segmented. The ocelli, one on each side, are ventro-lateral to the antennae (Lieu, 1945; Nakamura, 1981; Gyeltshen & Hodges, 2005; Pennacchio et al., 2012).
The pupae are exarate and 27 to 38 mm long; they have elytra that only partially cover the membranous hind wings and curve around to the ventral surface of the body (Gyeltshen & Hodges, 2005).
Typically cerambycid in shape; the body length usually ranges between 19 and 37 mm. Antennae 1.7-2 times length of body in male; 1.2 times length of body in female. The beetle is black with several white hair spots on the elytra. Adults of both sexes have the characteristic of possessing 20–40 small projections (tubercles) on the basal one fifth of each elytron. This character can allow A. chinensis to be distinguished from A. glabripennis (Lingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002; Thomas, 2004; Haack et al., 2010; EPPO, 2016a; EFSA, 2019).
Detection and inspection methods
Visual detection at the beginning of infestation is difficult due to the small amount of frass ejected externally by larvae. However, the frass becomes easier to see as the larvae mature as there is an accumulation of frass outside of the trunk on the ground (near collar region) and on emerging roots. This sign can be confused with frass ejected by larvae of xylophagous Lepidoptera (e.g. Cossus cossus) and others xylophagous Coleoptera. A molecular test (nested PCR) allowing the detection of A. chinensis DNA in frass has been developed (Strangi et al., 2013). However limited validation data are available for this test. Exit holes may be visual on the trunk of host plants after the first generation has emerged.
The use of traps could be coupled with others detection and inspection methods. In 2015 a study was published where a male-produced attractant pheromone was identified in A. chinensis (Hansen et al., 2015; Yasui & Fujiwara-Tsujii, 2016). However, according to the literature, there is no commercial trapping system available for A. chinensis specifically (EFSA, 2019). In Italy (Lombardy Region) some results were obtained using Cross Vane Panel Traps and Multi Funnel Traps loaded with various mixtures of the plant volatiles in combination with Anoplophora glabripennis attractants; the traps were positioned in areas of recent outbreaks and in those where eradication is close to being achieved. In addition, the traps are used for early detection in sites considered to be at risk (e.g. areas for green composting) (Regione Lombardia, 2020a).
Public awareness is a very effective tool for surveillance and plays a fundamental role. In Italy (Lombardy Region) the active role of citizens was considered fundamental to detect new A. chinensis infestation and to prevent its spread (Ciampitti & Cavagna, 2014). Citizens can also support the surveillance of A. chinensis through citizen science apps such as FitoDetective (Regione Lombardia, 2020b).
To confirm that a plant is infested by A. chinensis and not by another xylophagus species, it is essential to identify the larva(e) or the adult specimen(s) found by morphological or molecular analyses. Pennacchio et al. (2012) and Lingafelter & Hoebecke, 2002 published useful taxonomical keys for the morphological identification of late instar larvae and of the adults respectively. An EPPO diagnostic protocol is in preparation for this pest. Molecular identification of specimens can be performed using DNA barcoding (see EPPO Standard PM 7/129 (EPPO, 2016b)).
PATHWAYS FOR MOVEMENT 2020-10-21
The most important pathway for the introduction of A. chinensis is the import of host plants from areas where this species is present (EPPO, 2013).
In international trade, A. chinensis is most likely to be moved as eggs, larvae or pupae in live woody plants such as bonsai and nursery stock. (Haack et al., 2010; EPPO, 2001, 2002; CABI, 2020).
The adults fly readily, as is the case for other Cerambycidae. EFSA (2019) estimated that the maximum distance of natural spread in one year is about 194 m (with a 95% uncertainty range of 42–904 m). The specific scenario considers a population with a 2-year cycle based on average conditions in the European Union. In Italy, a geographic study shows that new infestations of A. chinensis could be found within 500 m of the previously infested trees in urban areas and within 663 m in agricultural areas (Cavagna et al., 2013).
PEST SIGNIFICANCE 2020-10-21
The most important damage is caused by larvae. These bore into the wood of living trees reducing the quality and value of the wood and causing the death of trees (Eschen et al., 2015).
As previously reported, in Asia A. chinensis is considered a serious pest of citrus orchards where it causes important economic losses (Gressitt, 1942; Lieu, 1945; Mitomi et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1997). Because of this, citrus plantations near import locations are risk areas that should be considered for surveillance and monitoring, particularly in regions where citrus cultivation is of economic relevance (EFSA, 2019).
In Asia, A. chinensis is also an important pest of many stone and pome fruit, and mulberry trees (Li et al. 1997). Due to its wide host range, A. chinensis could have extremely high economic impacts in countries where it is introduced.
In North America and Europe, A. chinensis has been found mostly in urban areas. Often the destruction of infested plants is required to prevent its spread. In the case of private gardens this may involve not only economic costs, but also have a social impact on local inhabitants.
The main control measures against the spread of A. chinensis consist of the destruction and the removal of infested trees including roots. Using root grinding equipment can help ensure effectiveness. In addition, for effective control of A. chinensis in urban areas, the collaboration of citizens is essential, for this reason it is very important to replace the destroyed infested plants with non-host plants.
Because oviposition occurs mainly on the lower trunk it is possible to apply techniques to exclude ovipositing adults (Adachi, 1989). In Italy wire nets are applied for this purpose on particularly valuable plants or in situations where it is not technically possible to destroy the stumps.
A wide variety of insecticides have been tested for Anoplophora spp., mainly on A. glabripennis. In Asia, for example, the fumigant aluminum phosphide is placed directly in larval galleries, organophosphates are used as systemic treatments, and pyrethroids are commonly used as trunk and foliar sprays (Hu et al., 2009). Another promising pyrethroid is lambda-cyhalothrin, which can be applied as an encapsulated contact insecticide (Smith et al., 2009).
Chemical control of larvae is usually not very effective for A. chinensis, however, chemical studies conducted in Italy in 2013 achieved some promising results when the basal trunks were initially treated with pyrethroid solutions and after 20 days treated with a mixture of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids (Cavalieri, 2013; Wang, 2017).
Some biological control agents have been studied and tested. In Italy (Lombardy Region), in 2002 in Parabiago area (Milano Province) a Eulophid Aprostocetus anoplophorae n. sp. has been reported on A. chinensis eggs. Several field trials with A. anoplophorae have been held in Lombardy Region (Delvare et al., 2004; Hérard et al., 2005; Brabbs et al., 2015; Maspero, 2015). In the literature several potential control agents are reported such as the nematode Steinernema feltiae, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii and some insect parasitoids (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) (Kashio, 1982, 1986; Kashio & Ujiye, 1988; Brabbs et al., 2015).
A. chinensis is highly polyphagous. The availability of host plants is not a limiting factor for its establishment and spread in the EPPO countries as well as climatic conditions, except in the most northern areas. The findings and outbreaks that have occurred in Europe from 2000 to date demonstrate the beetle’s adaptation to different climates and environments; due to this, the risk of establishment, spread and damage is considered very high (Van Der Gaag et al., 2008).
This species is able to attack and cause damage to fruit trees, ornamental and forest plants.
Detection of A. chinensis infestations is very problematic because often the infested plants are without signs and infestations may remain undetected for many years and allow the growth of a large population. In this case, eradication and control activities become long and costly. For this reason, it is very important to set up an accurate surveillance of the territory and implement strategies of early detection.
PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 2020-10-21
Since movement of live plants are the main pathway of movement of A. chinensis, it is important that the host plants are only imported from pest-free areas. Alternatively, the plants should be grown under carefully supervised conditions in registered nurseries. Suitable precautions would be to grow the plants for at least two years before dispatch in an insect-proof enclosure, inspecting them several times a year for the presence of A. chinensis.
As a general approach, it has also been recommended that when importing plants for planting (except seeds) and wood commodities of Castanea, Quercus, Betula, Populus, Salix, Fagus, Ulmus and Juglans from countries where A. chinensis occurs, precautions should have been taken to avoid any infestations while the consignments are transported through possibly infested areas (EPPO, 2017a,b,c,d,2018, 2020a,b).
In Europe, A. chinensis is subjected to emergency measures under Commission Implementing Decision 2012/138/EU of 1 March 2012 as regards emergency measures to prevent the introduction into and the spread within the Union.
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This datasheet was extensively revised in 2020 by Matteo Zugno and Mariangela Ciampitti. Their valuable contribution is gratefully acknowledged.
How to cite this datasheet?
Datasheet history 2020-10-21
This datasheet was first published in 1997 in the second edition of 'Quarantine Pests for Europe', as 'Anoplophora malasiaca and Anoplophora chinensis', and revised in 2020. It is now maintained in an electronic format in the EPPO Global Database. The sections on 'Identity', ‘Hosts’, and 'Geographical distribution' are automatically updated from the database. For other sections, the date of last revision is indicated on the right.
CABI/EPPO (1997) Quarantine Pests for Europe (2nd edition). CABI, Wallingford (GB).