ScaleNet. Chionaspis pinifoliae. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Chionaspis%20pinifoliae/
* Liu T, Kosztarab MP & Rhoades M (1989) I. Biosystematics of the adult females of the genus Chionaspis (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) of North America, with emphasis on polymorphism. Studies on the Morphology and Systematics of Scale Insects -- No. 15 (Contribution No. 2 to a National Biological Survey). VAES Bulletin 88-2. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Blacksburg, VA.
* Shour MH & Schuder DL (1987) Host range and geographic distribution of Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley and C. pinifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Indiana Academy of Science 96, 297–304.
* Hain FP, Duehl AJ, Gardener MJ, Payne TL (2011) Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle. In: Coulson, R.N.; Klepzig, K.D. 2011. Southern Pine Beetle II. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 13-24. https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39019
------- 'considered exceptional or nontraditional host that is indiscriminately attacked during an epidemic on preferred hosts but cannot sustain the epidemic. In rare cases, some T. canadensis were killed.
* Monné MA, Nearns EH (2021) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and United States of America. Part IV. Subfamily Lamiinae. https://cerambycids.com/catalog/Monne&Nearns_2021_NearcticCat_part_IV.pdf
* Akbulut S, Stamps WT (2012) Insect vectors of the pinewood nematode: a review of the biology and ecology of Monochamus species. Forest Pathology 42(2), 89-99. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2011.00733.x
* Lindquist EE, Wu KW (1991) Review of mites of the genus Mucroseius (Acari, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) associated with sawyer beetles (Cerambycidae, Monochamus and Mecynippus) and pine wood nematodes Aphelenchoididae, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner And Buhrer) Nickle, with descriptions of 6 new species from Japan and North-America, and notes on their previous misidentification. Canadian Entomologist 123(4), 875-927.
* Hérbert C, Berthiaume R, Bauce É and Brodeur J (2006) Geographic biotype and host-associated local adaptation in a polyphagous species, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) feeding on balsam fir on Anticosti Island, Canada. Bulletin of Entomological Research 96: 619-627.
* Maine Forest Service (2001) Hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria (Gn.). Maine Department of Conservation. https://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/forest_health/insects/hemlock_looper.htm
------- Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria
* Maier CT, Lemmon CR, Fengler JM, Schweitzer DF, Reardon RC, (2004) Caterpillars on the Foliage of Conifers in the Northeastern United States. Morgantown, WV. USDA Forest Service. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. FHTET-2004-01. March 2004. 151 p.