EPPO Global Database

Phytoplasma pruni(PHYPPN)

Distribution details in United States of America

Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2017: Present, widespread
First recorded in: 1931
From CABI Disease map 757 (1998): Present, widespread
From NPPO: Present, widespread
First record: California, 1931. Today, throughout the country except South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas and Texas. However, specific records in all the other states have not been found. See EPPO Reporting Service 503/10: control in Eastern States and Washington State possible by eradicating the wild host. In California, vector (leafhopper) control is needed.

EPPO Reporting Service (1997/193) : phytoplasmas inducing typical X-disease in western and eastern USA and Canada are genetically similar (and belong to the western X-disease phytoplasma group). Some strains in California are of this type. Others (causing peach yellow leaf roll symptoms) are distinct and belong to the apple proliferation group (including, in Europe, apple proliferation, pear decline and European stonefruit yellows). Comparison with European isolates showed that the Californian peach yellow leaf roll phytoplasma was related to all of these, but most closely to pear decline phytoplasma.

EPPO Reporting Service (2017/087) : found in 3 apple trees (new host), in Pennsylvania
* Gilmer, R. M.; Blodgett, E. C. (1976) Diseses and non-infectious disorders of stone fruits in North America. USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 437, 145-155.

* Kison, H.; Kirkpatrick, B.C.; Seemüller, E. (1997) Genetic comparison of the peach yellow leaf roll agent with European fruit tree phytoplasmas of the apple proliferation group. Plant Pathology, 46(4), 538-544.

* Nikolaeva EV, Welliver R, Rosa C, Jones T, Peter K, Costanzo S, Davis RE (2017) First report of apple (Malus domestica) as a host of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ in the United States. Plant Disease 101(2), p 378.
-------- On Malus domestica in Pennsylvania.

* Pearson, R. C.; Sands, D. C. (1978) Plant Disease Reporter 62 (9), 753-757.

* Suslow, K. G.; Purcell, A. H. (1982) Plant Disease 66 (1), 28-30.
Situation in neighbouring countries
Country State Status
Canada New Brunswick Present, no details view...
Canada British Columbia Present, no details view...
Canada Ontario Present, no details view...
Canada Present, restricted distribution view...