EPPO Global Database

Litylenchus crenatae mccannii(LITYMC)

Distribution details in United States of America

Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2020: Present, restricted distribution
Beech leaf disease was first observed in 2012 in the Lake county in Ohio. It was then observed in other Northeastern US states. Litylenchus crenatae mccannii is thought to be the cause of this emerging disease, but, it is not excluded that other pathogens might also be involved.

EPPO Reporting Service (2019/083) : it is suspected that the emerging 'Beech Leaf Disease' observed in parts of North America might be associated with Litylenchus crenatae, but this remains to be confirmed.

EPPO Reporting Service (2020/082) : Nematode populations collected in Ohio (initially identified as L. crenatae), Pennsylvania and Ontario were further studied. Results showed that North American nematode populations differed in morphology, host range, and ribosomal DNA marker from those in Japan. Therefore, it was proposed to consider the North American nematode associated with beech leaf disease as a new subspecies of L. crenatae, and to call it: Litylenchus crenatae mccannii.

EPPO Reporting Service (2020/083) : beech leaf disease found in Connecticut.

EPPO Reporting Service (2020/202) : beech leaf disease found in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

EPPO Reporting Service (2021/067) : further studies supporting the involvement of L. crenatae mccannii in beech leaf disease.
* Burke DJ, Hoke AJ, Koch J (2020) The emergence of beech leaf disease in Ohio: probing the plant microbiome in the search of the cause. Forest Pathology, e12580. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12579

* Carta LK, Handoo ZA, Li S, Kantor M, Bauchan G, McCann D, Gabriel CK, Yu Q, Reed S, Koch J, Martin D, Burke DJ (2020) Beech leaf disease symptoms caused by newly recognized nematode subspecies Litylenchus crenatae mccannii (Anguinata) described from Fagus grandifolia in North America. Forest Pathology, e12580. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12580

* Ewing CJ, Hausman CE, Pogacnik J, Slot J, Bonello P (2018) Beech leaf disease: an emerging forest epidemic. Forest Pathology e12488. DOI: 10.1111/efp.12488

- Center for Invasive Species Prevention (2018-05-17) Invasive Species. Update on Beech Leaf Disease, a threat lacking adequate funding and official action. http://www.nivemnic.us/update-on-beech-leaf-disease-a-threat-lacking-adequate-funding-and-official-action/
- Central Pennsylvania Forestry (2018-03-08) Look for Beech Leaf Disease. http://centralpaforest.blogspot.com/2018/03/look-for-beech-leaf-disease.html
- Don’t move firewood. Beech leaf disease. https://www.dontmovefirewood.org/pest_pathogen/beech-leaf-disease/
- Government of Massachusetts. Mass.gov (undated) Beech Leaf Disease in Massachusetts. https://www.mass.gov/guides/beech-leaf-disease-in-massachusetts
- Government of Rhode Island. RI.gov. Press Release (2020-07-13) DEM asks public to be aware of Beech Leaf Disease. https://www.ri.gov/press/view/38824
- Lake Metroparks. Beech leaf disease. A new problem to our forests by J. Pogacnik (2018-08-14). https://www.lakemetroparks.com/along-the-trail/august-2018/beech-leaf-disease
- Ohio Department of Natural Resources Forestry Division (2018-08-20) ODNR urges Ohioans to report Beech Leaf Disease. http://forestry.ohiodnr.gov/news/post/odnr-urges-ohioans-to-report-beech-leaf-disease
- USDA. We need your help. Look for signs of Beech Leaf Disease. http://files.constantcontact.com/3eb6bf61101/a51df273-005c-4330-88eb-e4ea5294ea0d.pdf

* Marra RE, LaMondia J (2020) First report of beech leaf disease, caused by the foliar nematode, Litylenchus crenatae mccannii, on American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in Connecticut. Plant Disease 104(9), p 2527. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-20-0442-PDN

* Pogacnik J, Macy T (2016-07) Forest Health Pest Alert. Beech Leaf Disease. http://forestry.ohiodnr.gov/portals/forestry/pdfs/BLDAlert.pdf

* Reed SE, Greifenhagen S, Yu Q, Hoke A, Burke DJ, Carta LK, Handoo ZA, Kantor MR, Koch J (2020) Foliar nematode, Litylenchus crenatae ssp. mccannii, population dynamics in leaves and buds of beech leaf disease-affected trees in Canada and the US. Forest Pathology 50, e12599.
Situation in neighbouring countries
Country State Status
Canada Ontario Present, restricted distribution view...
Canada Present, restricted distribution view...