New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In the USA, Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in May 2021 in three retail facilities in Michigan, one in Connecticut, and one in South Carolina after import of infested boxwood (Buxus spp.) from one nursery in Ontario (Canada). Traceability studies showed that this nursery had delivered plants in three other states. Official phytosanitary measures are applied and include the destruction of infested plants as well as surveys with traps and information campaigns. A federal order was issued to halt the importation of host plants from Canada, including boxwood (Buxus spp.), Euonymus (Euonymus spp.), and holly (Ilex spp.). Present, few occurrences, under official control.
In Norway, symptoms caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (formerly EPPO Alert List) were first observed in winter 2018 on soil-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Frillice) in a greenhouse located in Buskerud county. Affected plants showed stunted growth, wilting of outer leaves and brownish discoloration of vascular tissues of taproots and crowns. The grower estimated that the disease led to approximately 10% yield losses. Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 1 in the diseased lettuce samples (Herrero et al., 2021). Present, few occurrences.
In Iran, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae – EPPO A2 List) is widely distributed in the Southern part of the country. It was first recorded in Fars province in 2015. It is considered as a pest of citrus (Minaei & Mound, 2018). Present, restricted distribution.
- Detailed records
Beech leaf disease, associated with Litylenchus crenatae mccannii (EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from the state of Maine (US). The disease was confirmed in leaf samples collected from a forest in Lincolnville (Waldo country). Citizens have been encouraged to report any sightings of diseased trees (Maine DACF, 2021).
In China, Meloidogyne graminicola (EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Henan. In August 2020, rice (Oryza sativa) plants showing leaf yellowing, hooked root tips and poor development were observed in an irrigated paddy field in Yuanyang county, Xinxiang city. The identity of the nematode was confirmed by morphological methods, as well as by molecular and pathogenicity tests (Liu et al., 2021).
In Greece, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in 2016 in several locations in Southern Greece, on the mainland and several islands (Sifnos, Syros, Tinos). In December 2020, T. peregrinus was first observed in Crete on the northwestern coast: an adult specimen was photographed in a park in the village of Kounoupidiana, municipality of Chania (van der Heyden, 2021).
In Brazil, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (EPPO A1 List) is reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Norte. Symptoms of citrus canker were first observed in December 2019 on leaves and fruit of lime (Citrus aurantifolia cv. Galego) in a plantation located in the municipality of Mossoró. The identity of the bacterium was confirmed by molecular and pathogenicity tests (Amancio et al., 2021).
In France, the tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV – EPPO A2 List) was first detected in a greenhouse producing tomato fruits in January 2020 (EPPO RS 2020/037). Eradication measures were taken, and this outbreak is now considered eradicated. No other outbreaks of ToBRFV were detected in France in 2020 (NPPO of France, 2021-06).
The pest status of tomato brown rugose fruit virus in France is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
In France the tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) was detected on Cucurbita pepo in 4 locations in Southern France in September 2020 (EPPO RS 2020/250). Eradication measures were taken, and the four outbreaks are now considered eradicated (NPPO of France, 2021-06).
The pest status of the tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in France is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
In Slovakia, Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) was found in June 2018 in a garden centre (EPPO RS 2018/163). The NPPO of Slovakia declared that this outbreak is now eradicated (NPPO of Slovakia, 2021-05).
- New pests and taxonomy
A new phytoplasma associated with a lethal wilt disease of palm trees in Australia has been described and tentatively called ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma dypsidis’. This phytoplasma was initially found in Dypsis poivreana in the botanical gardens of Cairns, Queensland in 2017. Further surveys detected the pathogen in 8 dying ornamental palm species: Euterpe precatoria, Cocos nucifera, Verschaffeltia splendida, Brassiophoenix drymophloeoides, Burretiokentia hapala, Cyrtostachys renda, Reinhardtia gracilis, Carpoxylon macrospermum, as well as in 1 Phoenix sp., 1 Euterpe sp., and 2 native palm trees (Archontophoenix alexandrae) (Jones et al., 2021).
In 1957, a citrus disease called ‘citrus yellow vein disease’ (CYVD) was observed in California (US) in Eustis limequat (Citrus aurantifolia x Fortunella japonica). During subsequent studies, this uncommon disease was found to be graft-transmissible to multiple citrus species (except Poncirus trifoliata). Sensitive indicator plants (e.g. C. medica, C. aurantifolia) developed bright yellow discoloration of leaf petioles and veins. It was also observed that the CYVD pathogen could interact with other graft-transmissible agents resulting in either suppression or enhancement of symptoms. Recent studies have shown that the pathogen associated with CYVD is a new virus species tentatively called citrus yellow-vein associated virus (CYVaV), and closely related to unclassified virus-like RNAs in the family Tombusviridae (Kwon et al., 2021).
A new Phytophthora species, Phytophthora mediterranea sp. nov., has been described in Italy. This new species was shown to be associated with collar and root rot symptoms on myrtle (Myrtus communis) seedlings grown in a forest nursery. Pathogenicity tests have also showed that P. mediterranea was pathogenic to myrtle (M. communis) and lentisc (Pistacia lentiscus) seedlings, and thus has the potential to threaten the native Mediterranean maquis vegetation (Bregant et al., 2021).
Amancio L, Botelho Baia AD, Souza EB, Sales Júnior R, Paiva Negreiros AM, Queiroz Balbino V, Siqueira Gama MA (2021) First report of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causing citrus canker on lime in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Plant Disease (early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2498-PDN
Bregant C, Mulas AA, Rossetto G, Deidda A, Maddau L, Piras G, Linaldeddu BT (2021) Phytophthora mediterranea sp. nov., a new species closely related to Phytophthora cinnamomi from nursery plants of Myrtus communis in Italy. Forests 12, 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060682
Herrero ML, Nagy NE, Solheim H (2021) First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 1 causing Fusarium wilt of lettuce in Norway. Plant Disease (early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0134-PDN
Jones LM, Pease B, Perkiins SL, Constable FE, Kinoti WM, Warmington D, Allgood B, Powell S, Taylor P, Pearce C, Davis RI (2021) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma dypsidis’, a novel taxon associated with a lethal wilt disease of palms in Australia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71(5). https://doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004818
Kwon S-J, Bodaghi S, Dang T, Gadhave KR, Ho T, Osman F, Al Rwahnih M, Tzanetakis IE, Simon AE, Vidalakis G (2021) Complete nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and comparative genomic analyses of citrus yellow-vein associated virus (CYVaV). Frontiers in Microbiology 12, 683130. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.683130
Liu MY, Huang W, Peng D (2021) First report of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice in Henan Province, China. Plant Disease (early view). https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0303-PDN
Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation & Forestry (2021-06-07) Beech leaf disease added to Maine’s invasive species list. https://www.maine.gov/dacf/mfs/news-article.html?id=4882869
Minaei K, Mound L (2018) Scirtothrips genus-group in Iran with an unusual new species of Scirtothrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Zootaxa 4394 (2): 288–294.
NPPO of France (2021-06).
NPPO of Slovakia (2021-05)
USDA (2021-05-26) USDA confirms box tree moth and takes action to contain and eradicate the pest. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/newsroom/stakeholder-info/sa_by_date/sa-2021/sa-05/box-tree-moth
Van der Heyden T (2021) Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) has reached the Greek island of Crete. Journal of the Heteroptera of Turkey 3(1), 11-13. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4822269