New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Scolytinae, EU Annexes) is recorded for the first time from Spain (NPPO of Spain, 2021). The pest has been detected on ten Picea abies trees from a forest located in the municipality of Vielha e Mijaran (Lleida province, Autonomous Region of Cataluña) in summer 2020. The pest status of Dendroctonus micans is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned.
Dothistroma septosporum (EU RNQP) occurs in Turkey. In 2013, symptoms of the disease were observed on Pinus brutia in South-Western Turkey (Isparta province). Further surveys in 2013-2015 confirmed the presence of the pathogen in several young forests in Isparta and Antalya provinces). Dothistroma pini (EU RNQP) was not detected (Oskay et al., 2020). Present.
Erysiphe corylacearum, causing an emerging powdery mildew of hazelnuts, was first observed in Romania in 2019-2020 on hazelnut trees (Corylus avellana) in forests in the Eastern and Southern Carpathian Mountains (Chinan and Mânzu, 2021). Present.
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) is first reported from Japan. During surveys in 2017-2018 in forest ecosystems on Shikoku and Kyushu islands, 17 stream and river catchments were sampled. P ramorum was isolated from 3 places in Shikoku and 4 in Kyushu (from naturally fallen leaves in forest streams or from leaf baits deployed in the streams). During the same study, P. ramorum was also found in Vietnam. The authors conclude that this species probably originates from the laurosilva forests between Indochina and South-West Japan. Phytophthora lateralis (EPPO A2 List) was also isolated from Shikoku and Kyushu (Jung et al., 2021). Present.
- Detailed records
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Hemiptera: Diaspididae – EPPO A2 List) is present in Texas (US). It was observed on Lagerstroemia spp. (Gilder et al. 2020).
In July 2020, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae – EPPO A1 List) was found feeding on banana plants (Musa sp.) in Kerala, India (Gavas Ragesh and Sanju Balan, 2020).
In China, during surveys on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum sp.) in 2013-2017, the following viruses were first detected in the Yunnan province on these crops: tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List), tomato mottle mosaic virus (Tobamovirus, ToMMV – EPPO Alert list) (Li et al., 2021).
In Brazil, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae - EPPO Alert List) is reported to spread rapidly inland. It was recently trapped in the following states: Acre, Espirito Santo, Goias, Para, Rio Grande do Sul (de Souza Covre et al., 2021).
Lecanosticta acicola (EPPO A2 List) was first recorded in Sweden in 2018 on one tree in the Alnarp arboretum (EPPO RS 2019/041). The infested tree has been removed and destroyed. L. acicola is now (since 2019) a Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest (RNQP) for the EU. The pest status of L. acicola in Sweden is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated (NPPO of Sweden, 2021)
Phytophthora fragariae (EPPO A2 List) was detected in Sweden in one strawberry production site in May 2018 (EPPO RS 2018/204). Phytosanitary measures applied included destruction of the infested plants, substrate and cultivation materials. The pest status of Phytophthora fragariae in Sweden is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated (NPPO of Sweden, 2021).
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) was found in Italy in 2013 in two nurseries located in Toscana (municipalities of Pescia and Pistoia) on Viburnum plants (RS 2013/146 and RS 2013/245). Eradication measures were carried out in accordance with Decision 2002/757/CE, including the destruction of the infected lots. Subsequent official investigations in the nurseries concerned and in the surrounding area did not detect the pest. The pest status of Phytophthora ramorum in Italy is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated (NPPO of Italy, 2021).
- New pests and taxonomy
The use of high throughput sequencing (HTS) methodologies has recently revealed a significant number of new viruses in forest trees and urban parks. In 2014, leaf samples showing symptoms of leaf mottle and deformation were collected from an Acer pseudoplatanus tree in the Berlin-Grunewald urban forest, Germany. HTS revealed the presence of a new Emaravirus which has tentatively been called maple mottle-associated virus (MaMaV) The authors (Rumbou et al., 2021) also recalled that since 2018, the following 4 new emaraviruses have been discovered in forest and urban tree species:
- aspen mosaic-associated virus (AsMaV) in Populus tremula.
- European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV) in Sorbus aucuparia. and Amelanchier sp.
- common oak ringspot-associated virus (CORaV) in Quercus robur.
- maple mottle-associated virus (MaMaV) in Acer pseudoplatanus.
Chinan V-C, Mânzu CC (2021) Occurrence of Erysiphe corylacearum causing powdery mildew of Corylus avellana in Romania. Forest Pathology, e12681. https://doi.org/10.1111/efp.12681
de Souza Covre L, Arrué Melo A, Flechtmann CAH (2021) Flight activity and spread of Xylosandrus crassisuculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Brazil. Trees, Forests and People 4, 100076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tfp.2021.100076.
Gavas Ragesh, Sanju Balan (2020) The first report on fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an invasive pest in banana from Kerala, South India and notes on its behaviour. Insect Environment 23, 19-23.
Gilder K, Masloski KE, Woolley JB, Gu M, M, Merchant ME, Heinz M (2020) Discovery of a non-native parasitoid, Marlattiella prima Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and its non-native host, Lopholeucaspis japonica Cockerell (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) in Central Texas. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 77, 213–217. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.77.53827
Jung T, Horta Jung M, Webber JF, Kageyama K, Hieno A, Masuya H, Uematsu S, Pérez-Sierra A, Harris AR, Forster J, Rees H, Scanu B, Patra S, Kudláček T, Janoušek J, Corcobado T, Milenković I, Nagy Z, Csorba I, Bakonyi J, Brasier CM (2021) The destructive tree pathogen Phytophthora ramorum originates from the laurosilva forests of East Asia. Journal of Fungi 7(3),226. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7030226
Li Y, Tan G, Xiao L, Zhou W, Lan P, Chen X, Liu Y, Li R, Li F (2021) a multiyear survey and identification of pepper- and tomato-infecting viruses in Yunnan Province, China. Fronters in Microbiology 12, 623875. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.623875
NPPO of Italy (2021-01).
NPPO of Spain (2021-02).
NPPO of Sweden (2021-03).
Oskay F, Tunalı Z, Lehtijärvi AT, Doğmuş-Lehtijärvi HT, Woodward S, Mullett M (2020) Distribution and genetic diversity of Dothistroma septosporum in Pinus brutia forests of south-western Turkey. Plant Pathology 69(8), 1551–1564.