New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert List) has been reported in the Republic of Korea. It was detected for the first time in 2005 on melon (Cucumis melo) in commercial glasshouses in Naju and Gwangju. Affected plants showed severe foliar necrosis and fruit rot (Seo et al., 2006). Present, no details.
In Taiwan, the presence of Cowpea mild mottle virus (Carlavirus, CpMMV - EU Annexes) has recently been detected in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). In 2009, more than 50% of P. vulgaris plants growing in a vegetable garden in Nantou county showed stunted growth and pronounced leaf mottling. Laboratory tests confirmed the identity of the virus (inoculation to herbaceous hosts, ELISA, RT-PCR). In a separate survey, CpMMV was also detected causing mild symptoms in asparagus beans (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) (Chang et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2009 in Nantou district on legume crops (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis).
Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Bulgaria where it was first observed in the 1980s. Surveys conducted in 2005 and 2007 detected the fungus in 7 locations (Belogradchik, Berkovitsa, Brezhani, Barziya, Govezhda, Petrich and Petrovo) in the Western part of the country (Risteski et al., 2013). Present, locally.
In Iran, Ditylenchus gigas (previously considered to be the giant race of Ditylenchus dipsaci;– EPPO A2 List, see EPPO RS 2012/188) was identified for the first time during a survey on nematodes in broad bean crops (Vicia faba) in Kermanshah and Lorestan provinces (Tanha Maafi et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2012 on Vicia faba in Kermanshah and Lorestan provinces
During a survey on tospoviruses, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (Tospovirus, INSV - EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In July 2012, INSV was detected in a glasshouse near Banja Luka on potted begonias (Begonia x tuberhybrida) showing foliar chlorotic rings and zonal spots, necrosis and distortion (Trkulja et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2012, in glasshouse begonias near Banja Luka.
In Réunion, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2011 on Psidium guajava in Saint-Leu (Delpoux et al., 2013). Present, no details.
In Tunisia, the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in plum (Prunus domestica) showing symptoms of decline. Infected trees showed leaf browning, leaf and fruit wilting followed by tree death within a few weeks (Ben Khalifa ; Fakhfakh, 2011). Present, no details.
In China, the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in August 2011 on tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) in Qingdao City (Shandong province). Affected plants showed yellowing, stunted growth and flower malformation (Gao et al., 2013). Present, first found in 2011 in Shandong province on ornamentals (Paeonia suffruticosa).
In Germany, Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was discovered in northern Bayern at a freight station in Neustadt near Coburg (Bräsicke ; Hommes, 2013; JKI, 2012). Present, found near Coburg (Bayern).
The presence of Puccinia psidii (formerly EPPO Alert List) was confirmed in May 2013 in an ornamental Myrtaceae shrub (Myrtus communis) in a garden in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. This is the first confirmed report of P. psidii in South Africa (Roux et al., 2013). Present, confirmed in 2013 on Myrtus communis in a garden in KwaZulu-Natal province.
During a survey carried out in 2011-2012 in the province of Syracuse in Sicilia (Italy), Xanthomonas perforans (one of the bacteria associated with tomato bacterial spot) was detected in 2 greenhouse tomato crops showing pith necrosis, vascular discolouration, longitudinal splits and external lesions on stems (Aiella et al., 2013). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
In China, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (EPPO A2 List) was first found in 1982 in Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing (Jiangsu). It then spread to several Chinese provinces (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang) causing severe damage to forest resources and the natural landscape. In 2010, B. xylophilus was detected in Pinus tabulaeformis and P. armandii in forests of the Zhashui district in Shaanxi province causing pine wilt disease and mortality (Shi et al., 2013).
In Austria, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time 2009 in onions (Allium cepa) and weeds (EPPO RS 2012/061). Further studies conducted in 2010 detected the virus in the main onion-producing areas (Burgenland, Niederösterreich, Tyrol), as well as in several weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, Lactuca serriola, Tribulus terrestris). IYSV was also detected in leek (Allium ampeloprasum) in Tyrol (Weilner & Bedlan, 2013).
Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert List) occurs in Gansu and Guangdong provinces, China (Tian et al., 2013), as well as in Yunnan (Zhu et al., 2013).
In Switzerland, Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae- formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in Zürich in 2007. Until recently, the pest was only recorded on ornamental plants in the urban environment. At the end of summer 2012, H. halys was found for the first time on capsicum crops (Capsicum annuum) grown under plastic tunnels in the German-speaking part of the country. On leaves, feeding punctures caused small necrotic lesions which later detached from the leaves leaving small irregular holes. Attacked fruits showed small pale lesions, turning into corky tissues which rendered them unmarketable (Sauer, 2012).
In July 2013, Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) was found again in Toscana, Italy (see also EPPO RS 2013/146). It was detected during official surveys on 3 potted Rhododendron plants in a nursery located in Siena province. One of the affected plants showed symptoms. Phytosanitary measures in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/757/EC were taken, including the destruction of all infected plants and susceptible plants belonging to the same lots. Transient: actionable, under eradication (NPPO of Italy, 2013-08).
In Turkey, Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) has been recorded since 1968. Most isolates found have been ascribed to the PPV-M strain, although mixed infections of PPV-D and PPV-M, as well as the recombinant strain PPV-Rec have also been detected. More recently, studies conducted in the province of Ankara have revealed the existence of a seventh strain of PPV for which the name PPV-T (Turkey) has been proposed (Serçe et al., 2009).
- New host plants
During a survey carried out from 2009 to 2011, Heterodera glycines (EPPO A2 List) has been found on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in Xuchang (Henan province), China. Out of 50 tobacco fields studied, 30% showed yellowing symptoms and the presence of nematodes (females and cysts) on the roots. According to the authors, this is the first time that H. glycines is reported infesting tobacco fields (Shi & Zheng, 2013).
A new diagnostic method using a padlock probe (PLP) and dot-blot hybridization has been developed in China to detect Acidovorax citrulli (EPPO Alert List) in cucurbit seeds. The authors considered that this method was more effective than conventional PCR (Tian et al., 2013).
New PCR primers have been prepared and validated for the specific detection of Xanthomonas vesicatoria (EPPO A2 List), one of the bacteria associated with tomato bacterial spot (Araújo et al., 2013).
Aiello D, Scuderi G, Vitale A, Firrao G, Polizzi G, Cirvilleri G (2013) A pith necrosis caused by Xanthomonas perforans on tomato plants. European Journal of Plant Pathology 137(1), 29-41.
Araújo ER, Ferreira MASV, Quezado-Duval AM (2013) Specific primers for Xanthomonas vesicatoria, a tomato bacterial spot causal agent. European Journal of Plant Pathology 137(1), 5-9.
Ben Khalifa M, Fakhfakh H (2011) Detection of 16S rDNA of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ in plum decline in Tunisia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 33(3), 332-336 (abst.).
Bräsicke N, Hommes M (2013) [Forest health and forest protection 2012 in the Federal Republic of Germany]. Journal für Kulturpflanzen 65(4), 129-140 (in German).
Chang CA, Chien LY, Tsai CF, Lin YY, Cheng YH (2013) First report of Cowpea mild mottle virus in cowpea and French bean in Taiwan. Plant Disease 97(7), p 1001.
Delpoux C, Germain J.F. Delvare G, Franck A, Normand F, Quilici S (2013) Les cochenilles à sécrétions cireuses sur manguiers à la Réunion. Icerya seychellarum, ravageur en recrudescence. Phytoma- La Défense des Végétaux no. 665, 45-49.
Gao Y, Qiu PP, Liu WH, Su WM, Gai SP, Liang YC, Zhu XP (2013) Identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ associated with tree peony yellows disease in China. Journal of Phytopathology 161(3), 135-214.
JKI (2012) Express-PRA zu Psacothea hilaris by G. Schrader (in German). http://pflanzengesundheit.jki.bund.de/dokumente/upload/160a4_psacothea_hilaris_express_pra.pdf
NPPO of Italy (2013-08).
Risteski M, Milev M, Rigling D, Milgroom MG, Bryner SF, Sotirovski K (2013) Distribution of chestnut blight and diversity of Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut forests in Bulgaria. Forest Pathology. doi: 10.1111/efp.12051.
Roux J, Greyling I, Coutinho TA, Verleur M, Wingfield MJ (2013) The myrtle rust pathogen, Puccinia psidii, discovered in Africa. IMA Fungus 4(1), 155-159.
Sauer C (2012) La punaise marbrée fait une première apparition dans les cultures maraîchères de Suisse alémanique. Cultures maraîchères. Agroscope ACW. Extension Gemüsebau Info 28/12, 3-4. http://www.agroscope.admin.ch/publikationen/einzelpublikation/index.html?pubdownload=NHzLpZeg7t,lnp6I0NTU042l2Z6ln1acy4Zn4Z2rZpnG3s2Rodeln6h1d3t8gXyNn,aknp6V2tTIjKbXoKimjZ2UmZ2piKfo
Seo ST, Park JH, Lee JS, Han KS, Cheong SR (2006 [Bacterial fruit blotch of melon caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli]. Research in Plant Disease 12(3), 185-188 (in Korean).
Serçe CU, Candresse T, Svanella-Dumas L, Krizbai L, Gazel M, Caglayan K (2009) Further characterization of a new recombinant group of Plum pox virus isolates, PPV-T, found in orchards in the Ankara province of Turkey. Virus Research 142(1-2), 121-126.
Shi H, Zheng J (2013) First report of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) on tobacco in Henan, Central China. Plant Disease 97(6), p 852.
Shi J, Chen F, Luo YQ, Wang Z, Xie BY (2013) First isolation of pine wood nematode from Pinus tabuliformis forests in China. Forest Pathology 43, 59-66.
Tanha Maafi Z, Majd Taheri Z, Subbotin SA (2013) First report of the giant stem nematode, Ditylenchus gigas, from broad bean in Iran. Plant Disease 97(7), p 1005.
Tian Y, Zhao Y, Bai S, Walcoot RR, Hu B, Liu F (2013) Reliable and sensitive detection of Acidovorax citrulli in cucurbit seed using a padlock-probe-based assay. Plant Disease 97(7), 961-966.
Trkulja V, Mihić Salapura J, Curković B, Stanković I, Bulajić A, Vučurović A, Krstić B (2013) First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus on begonia in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease 97(7), p 1004.
Weilner S, Bedlan G (2013) Detection of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) in selected Allium species and overwintering hosts in Austrian onion-production areas. Journal für Kulturpflanzen 65(2), 60-67.
Zhu XY, Wang WC, Xu Y, Liu YT, Zheng YX, Jiang CJ, Wang JL (2013) Identification of bacterial fruit blotch of melons found in Yunnan Province. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University 28(2), 175-179.