New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Pakistan, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (Benyvirus, BNYVV – EPPO A2 List) was detected during surveys conducted in 2013-2014 in the major sugar beet growing areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (Northwestern Pakistan). The virus was detected in leaf samples showing symptoms of rhizomania (Ahmad et al., 2018).
In Argentina, zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (Orthotospovirus, ZLCV, formerly EPPO Alert List), was first recorded on symptomatic cucurbit crops (Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo, C. ficifolia, C. moschata) in Salta and Jujuy provinces. This is the first report of ZLCV outside of Brazil. Present.
In New Zealand, in late May 2020, a small population of Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae - EPPO A2 List) was found through routine surveillance at a location near Auckland International Airport. Subsequently, a further population was found in Pakuranga in South Auckland. The 2 locations are about 20 kilometres apart. Present, few occurrences.
- Detailed records
In Kyrgyzstan fireblight (Erwinia amylovora – EPPO A2 List) was first observed in 2008 (EPPO RS 2013/096). The disease is now widespread in the Northern part of the country, affecting apple orchards across Chuy and Issyk Kul provinces (Doolotkeldieva et al., 2019). According to Doolotkeldieva & Bobushova (2016), E. amylovora was also isolated from pear fruit and hawthorn in regions of Osh (South-West) and of Jalal Abad (Central-West), respectively.
In Ecuador, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Solanaceae haplotypes are listed in the EPPO A1 List) was first detected on potato in June 2019 (EPPO RS 2020/101). Between August and December 2019, symptoms resembling those of ‘Ca L. solanacearum’ infection were observed in commercial fields of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) and cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Pichincha and Imbabura provinces, together with high populations of the vector Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae - EPPO A1 List). ‘Ca L. solanacearum’ (haplotype A) was identified by molecular tests (Caicedo et al., 2020).
In China, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae - EPPO A2 List) was first observed in Xinjiang. It is now recorded in Jilin and Heilongjiang in Northeast China. In 2019, it occurred in 46 counties in these three provinces/autonomous regions in China. Eradication measures are applied (Wang et al., 2020).
In China, Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) is first reported from Hunan on mulberry trees (Morus sp.). This nematode also affects mulberry trees in Guangdong and Guangxi (Zang et al., 2020).
In India, Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) is reported from Madhya Pradesh. The nematode was detected in guava (Psidium guajava) orchards (Singh, 2020).
In South Africa Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) is reported from the provinces of Limpopo, Northern Cape and North West (Rashidifard et al., 2019).
In Kazakhstan, Myiopardalis pardalina (Diptera: Tephritidae, formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in the Kyzylorda region in 2004. Toyzhigitova et al. (2019) report that it now occurs in the following districts of this region: Kazalinsk, Karmakshy, Zhalagash, Syrdarya, Shieli, Zhanakorgan. The pest can cause crop losses, generally these are from 10 to 25% but they can be up to 100%.
- Host plants
During surveys in Ulmus species in Belgium in 2017-2018, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae’ (EU Annexes) was detected in seven different locations in non-symptomatic elm trees (Ulmus sp.) and one maple tree (Acer sp.). Until now, elm and maple trees were not known as host plants of this phytoplasma (Steyer et al., 2019).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) was found infesting Chinese elms (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida (US) (Moore et al., 2020).
- New pests
Watermelon green mottle mosaic virus (Tobamovirus, WGMMV) is a new virus described by Cheng et al. (2019) infecting watermelon in Taiwan. It was found infecting cucurbit fruits and plants in California in November 2017 and again in June 2018. These are the first records for North America. The following species were found positive: opo gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), fuzzy gourd (Benincasa hispida), Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), Japanese cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Many plants were coinfected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (Tobamovirus, CGMMV) and WGMMV, but single infections were identified by RT-PCR from bitter melon (Pitman et al., 2019).
Ahmad S, Ali A, Ahmad M, Ullah N, Afridi UK, Bostan N, Qureshi R, Tawwab S, Ahmad I, Zubair M (2018) Characterization of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Pakistan. Journal of Plant Pathology 100, 357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161-018-0083-1
Caicedo J, Vallejo M, Simbaña L, Rivera LI (2020) First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' causing leaf discoloration and wilting in tamarillo and cape gooseberry in Ecuador. New Disease Reports 41, 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2020.041.030
Cheng Y‐H, Huang C‐H, Chang C‐J, Jan F‐J (2019) Identification and characterisation of watermelon green mottle mosaic virus as a new cucurbit‐infecting tobamovirus. Annals of Applied Biology 174(1), 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12467
Doolotkeldieva T, Bobushova S (2016) Fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovoraon Rosaceae plants in Kyrgyzstan and biological agents to control this disease. Advances in Microbiology 6(11), 831–851. 10.4236/aim.2016.611080
Doolotkeldieva T, Bobushova S, Schuster C, Konurbaeva M, Leclerque A (2019) Isolation and genetic characterization of Erwinia amylovora bacteria from Kyrgyzstan. European Journal of Plant Pathology 155(2),677–686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-019-01790-3
Biosecurity New-Zealand (2020-06) Tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi. https://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/protection-and-response/responding/alerts/tomato-red-spider-mite/
Moore MR, Brito JB, Qiu S, Roberts CG & Combee LA (2020) First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA. Journal of Nematology 52: e2020-49. https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2020-049
Pitman TL, Posis KG, Tian T, Belanger CA, Roy A, Falk BW (2019) First report of watermelon green mottle mosaic virus in North America. Plant Disease 103(12), 3288. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-19-0308-PDN
Pozzi EA, Luciani CE, Celli MG, Conci VC, Perotto MC (2020) First report of zucchini lethal chlorosis virus in Argentina infecting squash crops. Plant Disease 104(2), 602. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-19-1064-PDN
Rashidifard M, Fourie H, Daneel MS, Marais M (2019) Morphological and morphometrical identification of Meloidogyne populations from various crop production areas in South Africa with emphasis on M. enterolobii. Zootaxa, 4658(2), 251–274. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4658.2.3
Singh N (2020) Emerging problem of guava decline caused by Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. psidii. Indian Phytopathology 73, 373–374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42360-020-00198-y
Steyer S, Fauche F, Deeren AM, Goedefroit T, De Jonghe K (2019) Phytoplasma survey in Ulmus species in Belgium. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes 9(1), 221-222. DOI:10.5958/2249-4677.2019.00111.7
Toyzhigitova B, Yskak S, Łozowicka B, Kaczyński P, Dinasilov A, Zhunisbay R, Wołejko E (2019) Biological and chemical protection of melon crops against Myiopardalis pardalina Bigot. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 126, 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-019-00231-x
Wang C, Xu H, Pan X-b (2020) Management of Colorado potato beetle in invasive frontier areas. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 19(2), 360-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62801-7
Zhang P, Shao H, You C, Feng Y, Xie Z (2020) Characterization of root-knot nematodes infecting mulberry in South China. Journal of Nematology 52, e2020-05. DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2020-004