First reports of Erwinia amylovora in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
In Kazakhstan, symptoms resembling those caused by fireblight (Erwinia amylovora – EPPO A2 List) have been observed by apple and pear growers in the Almaty area since 2008. In 2011, surveys were conducted in the regions of Enbekshikazakh (Almaty province) and Merky (Zhambyl province). As a result, 230 bacterial isolates showing morphological and cultural similarity to Pseudomonas syringae and E. amylovora were found. Laboratory analysis carried out by the Fruit and Vegetable Crop Protection Department of the Kazakh Research Institute for Plant Protection and Quarantine and by the All-Russian Plant Quarantine Centre confirmed the identify of E. amylovora in several samples of pear (Pyrus communis cv. ‘Talgarskaya krasavitsa’ and apple (Malus domestica cvs. ‘Aport’, ‘Starcrimson’ and ‘Golden delicious’). Following this first identification, a national survey programme has been initiated in the main pome fruit production areas of Kazakhstan. In 2012, surveys showed that the fireblight outbreak was restricted to the Enbekshikazakh region (Almaty province). Eradication and containment measures were taken and included the destruction of infected trees, as well as treatments with copper compounds. Discussions are also taking place about possible compensation to be given to growers when destroying trees. An information campaign has been launched (television, radio, magazines, newspapers and internet). Research projects are also being initiated in the field of diagnosis, and epidemiology of fireblight. It is finally noted that this first finding of E. amylovora in Kazakhstan might be of particular interest to the scientific community as this territory is one of the centres of Malus spp. origin and genetic diversity.
The situation of Erwinia amylovora in Kazakhstan can be described as follows: Present, first found in 2008 in the Almaty province, under eradication.
The source of introduction of fireblight into Kazakhstan is unknown. The disease may have been introduced by trade, as since 2003 import permits have been delivered to import plants for planting of pome fruit and ornamental plants from countries where E. amylovora occurs. However, the disease may also have spread naturally, as E. amylovora was recently found in the bordering regions of Kyrgyzstan. In Kyrgyzstan, fireblight first appeared in 2008/2009 in the Chuy province. In 2011, it was also found in Issyk Kul province. So far in the Issyk Kul province, outbreaks were discovered in the following localities: Issyk Kul (5.8 ha), Aksuisk (8 ha), Tonsk (5.3 ha), Tyupsk (5.3 ha), Dzhety-Oguz (0.1 ha), Balykchy (0.4 ha) and Karakol (0.1 ha).
The situation of Erwinia amylovora in Kyrgyzstan can be described as follows: Present, first found in 2008, Chuy and Issyk Kul provinces.
Drenova NV, Isin MM, Dzhaimurzina AA, Zharmukhamedova GA, Aitkulov AK (2012) Bacterial fire blight in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Plant Health Research and Practice 1(3), 44-48.