New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
During a survey conducted in 4 distinct vineyards in the United Kingdom, Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV) was detected for the first time. Using PCR tests, GPGV was detected in 1 grapevine sample (Vitis vinifera, clone 336 grafted upon Gravesac – unspecified locality). It is noted that further large-scale studies should be done to determine the prevalence and spread of GPGV in the United Kingdom and evaluate the impact of the virus on yield and wine quality (Silva et al., 2018).
In September 2017, Lecanosticta acicola (EPPO A2 List) was found for the first time in Romania. During an official survey, the fungus was detected in a forest area in the county of Vrancea. The infected pine plantation (approximately 19 ha) had been established 30 years ago. The origin of this outbreak is unknown. Official measures were taken to eradicate the disease (NPPO of Romania, 2017-10). Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned, under eradication.
In October 2018, an adult specimen of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae – Western conifer seed bug) was found for the first time in Georgia. The insect was photographed on a terrace outside a building in Borjomi (Samtskhe-Javakheti region). Concerning other countries in the EPPO region, the author of the paper added that after the finding of a dead specimen of L. occidentalis in Vlorë, Albania (EPPO RS 2018/173), a live one was found in November 2018 on the balcony of a residential building, again in Vlorë. In Germany, he also observed a specimen in Hamburg, on the terrace of his backyard in November 2018 (van der Heyden, 2018).
In October 2017, an adult male specimen of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae – Western conifer seed bug) was found for the first time in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The insect was photographed on the ground, in the ‘First President’s Park’ which is a large park located in the centre of the city of Almaty with extensive and recent ornamental tree plantations. Other photographs of L. occidentalis, also taken in October 2017 in Almaty, could then be retrieved from the Internet. According to the authors, the nearest record was made in Ossetia in Russia which is more than 2 500 km to the west. They noted that this new record in Kazakhstan represents a large expansion of the pest towards the east and into the centre of Asia (Barclay and Nikolaeva, 2018).
In September 2011, an adult male specimen of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae – Western conifer seed bug) was observed for the first time in Tunisia. The insect was found on the bark of a Pinus pinea tree in the 'Dar Fatma' pine forest. One nymph (5th instar) was also collected in September 2012 on a P. halepensis tree in the 'Sidi Bader' pine forest. Both sites are located near Tabarka (Northwestern Tunisia) where there is an international airport and a maritime port (Ben Jamâa et al., 2013).
In Greece, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae - formerly EPPO Alert List) was first found in 2016 in several locations (mainland and several islands) on cultivated Eucalyptus spp. and Corymbia citriodora (Petrakis, 2018).
- Detailed records
In the United Kingdom, during routine testing for viroids conducted at a tissue culture facility in 2017, Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) was detected in 2 dahlia lines (both cv. Tiger Eye). In addition to PSTVd, Dahlia latent viroid (Hostuviroid – DLVd) was detected in dahlia cv. Fire Mountain. Dahlia cultivars infected by either PSTVd or DLVd showed no obvious symptoms. However, their growth rate in tissue culture was slower than that of other dahlia, especially for PSTVd-infected lines. All infected dahlia lines have been destroyed (Monger, 2018).
The NPPO of Switzerland recently informed the EPPO Secretariat that for the first time, Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma (EPPO A2 List) was found in a nursery on the Northern side of the Alps on a single grafted young Vitis plant. The nursery is located in ‘La Côte’ (Canton of Geneva). Tracing-back studies are ongoing to determine the possible origin of this infection. Official phytosanitary measures are being taken to eradicate the pathogen. The pest status of Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma in Switzerland is officially declared as: Present, only in some parts.
The oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Heteroptera: Tingidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) continues to spread within the EPPO region. Its presence has recently been reported in Bosnia and Herzegovina, France and Slovenia (Alim’agri website, 2017; Dautbašić et al., 2018; Jurc & Jurc, 2017). A distribution map can be viewed in the EPPO Global Database: https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/CRTHAR/distribution
The blueberry rust, Thekopsora minima (EPPO A2 List) occurs in California, US. Symptoms were observed for the first time in 2010 on highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. darrowii) near Capinteria (Santa Barbara county) and then in Watsonville (Santa Cruz county). Laboratory studies then confirmed the identity of the fungus. It is noted that in the affected area, the alternate host (Tsuga spp.) is not present (Shands et al., 2018).
In Romania, an outbreak of Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV – EPPO A2 List) was found in April 2018. The virus was detected in glasshouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) in the municipality of Gherăseni. All infected tomato plants were destroyed and the glasshouse was disinfected (NPPO of Romania, 2018). Present, only in some parts of the Member State concerned.
In Portugal, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae – EPPO A2 List) continues to spread. An updated map of the demarcated areas has been updated by the NPPO and can be viewed on the Internet. Outbreaks have been reported mainly along the coast in Norte and Centro regions, as well as in the Área Metropolitana de Lisboa (DGAV website, 2018).
In Finland, an outbreak of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) was found in 2014. PPV was initially detected in a mother tree (Prunus domestica cv. ‘Renklod Mitshurinskij’) in a nursery in Eastern Finland and then in a small number of other plum trees which had been produced from this mother tree (EPPO RS 2015/136). Eradication measures were taken, and PPV was no longer found. In October 2018, the NPPO of Finland officially declared the eradication of PPV from its territory (NPPO of Finland, 2018-10).
- New pests and taxonomy
A new fungal species, Neopestalotiopsis rosicola sp. nov. has been isolated from Rosa chinensis plants in Jiangsu Province, China. Affected plants showed stem cankers (Jiang et al., 2018).
Barclay M, Nikolaeva S (2018) Arrival in Kazakhstan of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae); a North American invasive species expands 2,500 kilometres to the east. Klapalekiana 54, 1–3
Ben Jamâa ML, Mejri M, Naves P, Sousa E (2013) Detection of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Tunisia. African Entomology 21(1), 165-167.
Dautbašić M, Zahirović K, Mujezinović O, Margaletić J (2018) [First record of oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in Bosnia and Herzegovina]. Šumarski List 142(3/4), 179-181 (in Croatian).
- Alim'agri (2017-09-18) La punaise réticulée ou le tigre du chêne - Découverte d'un nouvel insecte identifié sur chêne dans la région de Toulouse : Corythucha arcuata. http://agriculture.gouv.fr/la-punaise-reticulee-ou-le-tigre-du-chene-decouverte-dun-nouvel-insecte-identifie-sur-chene-dans-la
- DGAV website. Trioza erytreae. Mapa com atualização da zona demarcada (2018-10-10). http://www.dgv.min-agricultura.pt/xeov21/attachfileu.jsp?look_parentBoui=14568259&att_display=n&att_download=y
Jiang N, Bonthond G, Fan XL, Tian CM (2018) Neopestalotiopsis rosicola sp. nov. causing stem canker of Rosa chinensis in China. Mycotaxon 133(2), 271-283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5248/133.271
Jurc M, Jurc D (2017) The first record and the beginning the spread of oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say, 1832) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Slovenia. Šumarski List 141(9/10), 485-488.
Monger WA, (2018) Dahlia latent viroid and Potato spindle tuber viroid in dahlia plants in the UK. New Disease Reports 38, 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.008
NPPO of Finland (2018-10).
NPPO of Romania (2017-11; 2018-05).
Petrakis PV (2018) First record of the bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus in Greece. Entomologia Hellenica 27(1), 1-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12681/eh.18703 (via PestLens).
Shands AC, Grandall SG, Ho T, Miles TD (2018) First report of leaf rust on Southern highbush blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in California. Plant Disease 102(6), 1171-1172.
Silva G, Lecourt J, Clover GRG, Seal SE (2018) First record of Grapevine Pinot gris virus infecting Vitis vinifera in the United Kingdom. New Disease Reports 38, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.007
Van der Heyden T (2018) New data on the distribution of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), including the first record of the species in Georgia. Revista Chilena de Entomologia 44(4), 433-435.