EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 09 - 2018 Num. article: 2018/173

New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List


By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.


  • New records

In Ireland, the first outbreaks of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (formerly EPPO Alert List) were reported in September 2018. The disease was found on glasshouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa) crops in 2 sites in the county of Dublin and 2 additional sites are suspected to be infected (ProMed, 2018-09). Present, only in some areas.


In July 2017, severe symptoms of leaf curling resembling those of tomato leaf curl disease and whiteflies (more than 50 individuals per plant) were observed on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in open fields and in greenhouses on the island of Praslin, Seychelles. Laboratory studies confirmed the presence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV - EPPO Alert List) and Bemisia tabaci (EPPO A2 List). This is the first time that ToLCNDV and its vector are reported from the Seychelles (Scussel et al., 2018). Present, only in some areas.


Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae – Western conifer seed bug) is reported for the first time from Albania. A picture of the first observed specimen was taken at the end of August 2018 near Vlorë, Southern Albania. This specimen was found dead in an area of reeds surrounded by pine trees. It is not known whether the pest is established or not. Interestingly, L. occidentalis had been reported a few days before on the nearby Greek island of Corfu, at a distance of less than 100 km (van der Heyden, 2018). 


In the USA, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae - EPPO A1 List) has been found in 2 new US states, close to Pennsylvania where the pest was first found in 2014. L. delicatula was reported in July 2018 from New Jersey in Warren and Mercer counties. Eradication measures are implemented (New Jersey Register, 2018)L. delicatula was also reported twice from New York state in September 2018: a single adult insect was collected on a private Keuka Lake property in Yates county. In addition, a single adult insect was discovered in a vehicle in the Capital District in Albany (Growing Produce, 2018). It can be recalled that in 2017, a single dead specimen was found in New York state (EPPO RS 2018/053)Present, only in some areas, under eradication.



  • Detailed records

In the United Kingdom, new outbreaks of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (formerly EPPO Alert List) were reported on glasshouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa) crops in Lancashire, and in Cambridge (ProMed, 2018-09).


Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A2 List) occurs in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Specimens were collected in Paço do Lumiar and São José de Ribamar on leaves, branches, stems and fruits of Annona squamosa, Spondias tuberosa, Theobroma grandiflorum and Malpighia punicifolia. It is noted that S. tuberosa and M. punicifolia are new host plant records for M. hirsutus (Ramos et al., 2018).


In Australia, bacterial leaf spot was first reported in 1944 and still negatively impacts crop production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), capsicum and chilli (Capsicum spp.). During the 2015 growing season, surveys were conducted in tomato and capsicum crops in eastern Australia (New South Wales and Queensland). As a result, X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans and X. vesicatoria (all EPPO A2 List) were the most commonly found bacterial species associated with symptomatic plant samples. In these studies, X. euvesicatoria and X. vesicatoria were found in both New South Wales and Queensland; X. perforans was found only in Queensland (Roach et al., 2018).



  • Epidemiology

It has long been accepted that begomoviruses could not be transmitted by infected seeds. However, recent studies conducted in the Republic of Korea have shown that infected seeds of tomato (Solanum tuberosum), soybean (Glycine max) and of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) could transmit Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (EPPO A2 List) (Kil et al., 2016; Kil et al., 2017; Kil et al. 2018).



  • New pests and taxonomy

A new thrips species, Neohydatothrips narroi (Thysanopera: Thripidae), has been described from Mexico. The insect was collected from leaves of avocado (Persea americana) trees (Cambero Campos et al., 2018).


A new nematode species, Laimaphelenchus suberensis sp. nov. has been described. This nematode was isolated from the bark of declining Quercus suber trees in Portugal. It is thought that this nematode is associated with lichens, algae or mosses that are growing on the bark of declining trees (Maleita, 2018).


A new bacterial species, Pectobacterium zantedeschiae sp. nov., has recently been described. The bacterium was isolated from rhizomes and leaves of Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily) in Poland and Serbia. Affected plants had necrotic lesions on the leaves and soft rot on rhizomes (Waleron et al., 2018). 



  • Phytosanitary treatment

Chipping infested trees during mid-winter into chips of ≤1-inch (2.54 cm) in two dimensions is considered a suitable phytosanitary treatment to destroy egg masses of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae - EPPO A1 List) according to experiments conducted in Pennsylvania (US) on infested Ailanthus altissima (Cooperband et al., 2018).


Sources

Cambero Campos J, Retana Salazar AP, Campos Figueroa M, Robles Bermúdez A (2018) A new species of Neohydatothrips associated with avocado in Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist 43(2), 539-542. https://doi.org/10.3958/059.043.0227 (via PestLens).

Cooperband MF, Mack R & Spichiger S-E (2018) Chipping to destroy egg masses of the spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae). Journal of Insect Science 18(3), 10–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iey049

INTERNET

Growing Produce (2018-09-12). Dreaded spotted lanternfly found in Finger Lakes. https://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/dreaded-spotted-lanternfly-found-finger-lakes/

Kil EJ, Kim S, Lee YJ, Byun HS, Park J, Seo H, Kim CS, Shim JK, Lee JH, Kim JK, Lee KY, Choi HS, Lee S (2016) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes. Scientific Reports 6, 19013. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep19013.pdf

Kil EJ, Park J, Choi EY, Byun HS, Lee KY, An CG, Lee JH, Lee GS, Choi HS, Kim CS, Kim JK, Lee S (2018) Seed transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(3), 759-764.

Kil EJ, Park J, Choi HS, Kim CS, Lee S (2017) Seed transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in white soybean (Glycine max). The Plant Pathology Journal 33(4), 424-428. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538446/pdf/ppj-33-424.pdf

Maleita CMN, Costa SR, Abrantes I (2018) Laimaphelenchus suberensis sp. nov. associated with Quercus suber in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(3), 747-758.

Maleita CMN, Costa SR, Abrantes I (2018) Laimaphelenchus suberensis sp. nov. associated with Quercus suber in Portugal. European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(3), 747-758.

New Jersey Register (2018-08-20) Spotted lanternfly quarantine. Adopted emergency new rules and concurrent proposed new rules: N.J.A.C. 2, 20-10. https://www.state.nj.us/agriculture/rule/rule22010.pdf

ProMed posting (no. 20180910.6018539) of 2018-09-10. Fusarium wilt, lettuce - Ireland: 1st rep, UK spread. https://www.promedmail.org/post/6018539

Ramos ASJC, Peronti ALBG, Kondo T, Lemos RNS (2018) First record of Crypticerya zeteki (Cockerell, 1914) (Monophlebidae) in Brazil and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Pseudococcidae) in the state of Maranhão. Brazilian Journal of Biology 78(1), 87-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.05416

Roach R, Mann R, Gambly CG, Shivars RG, Rodoni B (2018) Identification of Xanthomonas species associated with bacterial leaf spot of tomato, capsicum and chilli crops in eastern Australia. European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(3), 595-608.

Scussel S, Claverie S, Hoareau M, Simiand C, Reynaud B, Moustache R, Lefeuvre P, Delatte H, Lett JM (2018) First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Asia1 species on tomato in the Seychelles. New Disease Reports 38, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.002

van der Heyden T (2018) First record of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) in Albania. Revista Chilena de Entomología 44(3), 355-356.

Waleron M, Misztak A, Waleon M, Franczuk M, Jonca J, Bartosz W, Mikiciński A, Popović T, Waleron K (2018) Pectobacterium zantedeschiae sp. nov. a new species of a soft rot pathogen isolated from Calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.). Systematic and Applied Microbiology (in press). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2018.08.004 (via PestLens).