New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Bulgaria, Cryptostroma corticale (sooty bark disease of sycamore) was first found in August 2014 on Acer platanoides trees growing in a park and near a lake in Druzhba, a residential area of Sofia. In November/December 2014, more infected trees were observed in the same park and in a garden in Mladost, a district of Sofia (Bencheva, 2014).
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato (Coleoptera: Scolytidae – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from Mexico. The first specimen was caught in 2015 in a trap located in a touristic area near Tijuana (Baja California). No damage or signs of presence of ambrosia beetle infestation was observed on potential host plants present in the surroundings of the trapping site (García-Avila et al., 2016). Present, first specimen caught in 2015 near Tijuana.
Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato (Coleoptera: Scolytidae – EPPO A2 List) is reported to occur in Brazil. Specimens have been collected in Manaus (Amazonas); no further details were given (Wood, 2007). Present, few occurrences.
Little cherry virus 1 (Velarivirus – EU Annexes) is reported for the first time from France. The virus was initially detected in 2 plum trees (Prunus domestica ‘Quetsche d’Alsace’ and ‘Quetsche précoce d’Hersingen’) and then in 17 other samples of P. domestica. All samples (except 1) originated from the Alsace region. It is noted that considering the high incidence of LChV1 in plums observed in the Alsace region, specific surveys of propagation material should be envisaged (Marais et al., 2016). Present, first found in 2016 in plum trees in Alsace region.
In 2016, Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) has been caught in kairomone traps placed in 1 pine tree in the Southwestern part of Denmark. After more than 10 years of surveillance for Monochamus spp., this is the first indication of an established population of a Monochamus species in Denmark.
The pest status of Monochamus galloprovincialis in Denmark is officially declared as: Present: only in some areas (IPPC, 2017).
In Greece, Paraleyrodes minei (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has been reported infesting mulberry (Morus alba) (Wang et al., 2016). Present, no details.
In China, Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (Potexvirus, PlAMV) has been reported for the first time on lily hybrids (Lilium sp.). During winter 2015, severe leaf necrotic streaking was observed on lily hybrids in the greenhouse of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing. The identity of the virus was confirmed by molecular tests (NGS, RT-PCR, sequencing) (Xu et al., 2017). Present, few occurrences.
- Detailed records
In the Republic of Korea, Erwinia amylovora (EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2015 on apple (Malus domestica) and pear (Pyrus sp.) orchards near the cities of Anseong and Cheonan (EPPO RS 2015/089 and 2016/162). During a survey, symptoms of fireblight were observed in July 2015 on twigs of Chinese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis) in a commercial nursery in Cheonan. Eradication programmes are being implemented (Myung et al., 2016).
New host and geographical records of Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato (Coleoptera: Scolytidae – EPPO A2 List) for China have been provided by a detailed study of 193 specimens deposited from 1960 to 1999 in the National Zoological Museum of China in Beijing, and by an extensive field investigation conducted from 2013 to 2015. E. fornicatus has been recorded in the following Chinese provinces: Beijing*, Chongqing*, Fujian*, Guangdong, Guizhou*, Hainan*, Sichuan, Xizhang, and Yunnan (* new detailed records for the EPPO Secretariat). The pest has been found on the following plant species: Acacia mearnsii, Acacia sp., Acer buergerianum, Betula alnoides, Camellia sinensis, Cassia siamea, Castanea sp.*, Castanopsis fargesii*, Citrus sp., Dalbergia odorifera, Erythrina variegata, Hevea brasiliensis, Ligustrum compactum*, Litchi chinensis, Mallotus barbatus*, Pinus massoniana*, Platanus orientalis*, Ricinus communis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Saurauia tristyla*, Theobroma cacao (* new host records according to the authors - Li et al., 2016).
A fast and sensitive LAMP test has been developed for the detection and identification of three fruit tree phytoplasmas: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ (apple proliferation - EPPO A2 List), ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ (pear decline - EPPO A2 List), and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ (European stone fruit yellows – formerly EPPO A2 List) (De Jonghe et al., 2017).
A multiplex real-time PCR test has been developed to detect Monilinia fructicola (EPPO A2 List), M. laxa and M. fructigena in a single reaction on fruit, twig, and flower samples. This new test is considered to be a useful tool for monitoring single or multiple infections, e.g. in the orchards to choose the appropriate chemical treatments or in the framework of official controls (Guinet et al., 2016).
- New pests
Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD) is a disorder of blackberries (Rubus spp.) which has been associated with several virus species. So far, the following viruses have been found in association with BYVD: Blackberry yellow vein associated virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus and Blackberry virus Y. Recent studies have identified a new virus species in diseased blackberries collected from various US states belonging to the genus Badnavirus (Caulimoviridae), tentatively called Blackberry virus F (Shahid et al., 2017).
Phytophthora boodjera sp. nov is a newly described pathogen which has been found in Western Australia (AU). It has mostly been isolated from dead and dying Eucalyptus seedlings in nurseries and from urban trees, and occasionally from disturbed natural ecosystems (Simamora et al., 2015).
In the Republic of Korea, a new virus isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare) has recently been described and tentatively called Barley virus G (Polerovirus, BVG). BVG was then also detected in plants of Panicum miliaceum (common millet) and Setaria italica (foxtail millet) showing leaf symptoms, such as yellow leaf stripes, necrotic spots, and mosaic (Oh et al., 2017; Park et al., 2017; Zhao et al., 2016).
The preferred name of the fungus causing septoria canker of poplar is now Sphaerulina musiva (=Septoria musiva, Mycosphaerealla populorum, Davidiella populorum – EPPO A1 List) (Quaedvlieg et al., 2013).
Bencheva S (2014) First report of Cryptostroma corticale (Ellis & Everh.) P.H. Greg. & S. Waller on Acer platanoides L. in Bulgaria. Silva Balcanica 15(2), 101-104.
De Jonghe K, De Roo I, Maes M (2017) Fast and sensitive on-site isothermal assay (LAMP) for diagnosis and detection of three fruit tree phytoplasmas. European Journal of Plant Pathology 147(4), 749-759.
García-Avila de J, Trujillo-Arriaga FJ, López-Buenfil JA, González-Gómez R, Carrillo D, Cruz LF, Ruiz-Galván I, Quezada-Salinas A, Acevedo-Reyes N (2016) First report of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Mexico. Florida Entomologist 99(3), 555-556.
Guinet C, Fourrier-Jeandel C, Cerf-Wendling I, Ioos R (2016) One-step detection of Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena, and M. laxa on Prunus and Malus by a multiplex real-time PCR assay. Plant Disease 100(12), 2465-2474.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Denmark (DNK-20/1 of 2017-03-14) Establishment of Monochamus galloprovincialis in one conservatory pine plantation in Denmark. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/denmark/pestreports/2017/03/establishment-of-monochamus-galloprovincialis-in-one-conservatory-pine-plantation-in-denmark/
Li Y, Gu X, Kasson MT, Bateman CC, Guo J, Huang YT, Li Q, Rabaglia RJ, Hulcr J (2016) Distribution, host records, and symbiotic fungi of Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in China. Florida Entomologist 99(4), 801-804.
Marais A, Faure C, Theil S, Svanella-Dumas L, Brans Y, Maurice I, Blin V, Candresse T (2016) First report of Little cherry virus 1 on plum in France. Plant Disease 100(12), p 2544-2545.
Myung IS, Yun MJ, Lee YH, Kim GD, Lee YK (2016) First report of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on Chinese quince in South Korea. Plant Disease 100(12), p 2521.
Oh J, Park CY, Min HG, Lee HK, Yeom YA, Yoon Y, Lee SH (2017) First report of Barley virus G in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) in Korea. Plant Disease (in press) DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0036-PDN
Park CY, Oh JH, Min HG, Lee HK, Lee SH (2017) First report of Barley virus G in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Korea. Plant Disease 101(2), p 393.
Quaedvlieg W, Verkley GJM, Shin HD, Barreto RW, Alfenas AC, Swart WJ, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW (2013) Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology 75, 307-390.
Shahi MS, Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N, Sabanadzovic S, Tzanetakis IE (2017) Genomic characterization and population structure of a Badnavirus infecting blackberry. Plant Disease 101(1), 110-115.
Simamora AV, Stukely MJ, Hardy GE, Burgess TI (2015) Phytophthora boodjera sp. nov., a damping-off pathogen in production nurseries and from urban and natural landscapes, with an update on the status of P. alticola. IMA Fungus 6(2), 319-335.
Wang JR, Perdikis D, Chalkia C, Harizanis P, Kalaitzaki A, Tsagkarakis A, XuYZ, Du YZ (2016) The occurrence of Pealius mori (Takahashi), Pealius machili Takahashi and Paraleyrodes minei Iaccarino (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Morus alba L. in Greece. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.) (online view) http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00379271.2016.1259586
Wood SL (2007) Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Provo, Utah (US), 900 pp.
Xu LF, Ming J, Yuan SW (2017) First report of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus in lily hybrids in China. Plant Disease 101(1), p 263.
Zhao F, Lim S, Yoo RH, Igori D, Kim SM, Kwak do K, Kim SL, Lee BC, Moon JS (2016) The complete genomic sequence of a tentative new polerovirus identified in barley in South Korea. Archives of Virology 161(7), 2047-2050 (via PestLens).