New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Sweden, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was found for the first time in August 2016 in the county of Skåne on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) at 2 locations, a commercial field and a private garden. Routine inspections in commercial strawberry fields have been carried out in counties other than Skåne but no further findings have been made. No official phytosanitary measures have been taken (NPPO of Sweden, 2016). Present, only in specific parts of the area concerned.
Macrohomotoma gladiata (Hemiptera: Homotomidae) is a psyllid of Asian origin which feeds on Ficus microcarpa. This species has been introduced into the EPPO region in the early 2010s (EPPO RS 2011/219, 2016/010, and 2016/034). In September 2015, M. gladiata was found for the first time in North America, in California (US). The first specimens were collected on a backyard Ficus microcarpa tree in the city of Anaheim (Orange county). Other specimens were later found in a nearby location (Rung, 2016).
Present, first found in 2015 in California (Orange county).
Basil downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii has been reported from Spain. This pathogen has been detected in symptomatic samples of basil (Ocimum basilicum) collected from the island of Tenerife (Islas Canarias). It is also noted that in the last four years, this downy mildew has been causing severe symptoms and economic losses in Almería, Andalucía (Gómez Tenorio et al., 2016). Present, found in Andalucía and Islas Canarias (Tenerife).
In 2015, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Namibia. The pest was collected from leaves of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) in two locations near Ariamsvlei and Karasburg (Giliomee and Ueckermann, 2016).
Present, first found in 2015 in two localities (near Ariamsvlei and Karasburg).
In 2016, during routine surveys, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was observed for the first time in South Africa. The pest was found on leaves of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) near the town of Upington, Northern Cape Province (IPPC, 2016). Present, first found in 2016 in one locality in Northern Cape Province.
In Israel, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Eucalyptus camaldulensis near Tel Aviv in October 2014. A survey of several eucalyptus groves was conducted in Tel Aviv and its surroundings. The pest was collected in Herzliya, Gan Le'ummi Yarqon (Ramat Gan) and Gan B'Ivrit (Rishon LeZiyyon). In these localities, all eucalyptus trees growing in parks were infested by T. peregrinus. It is considered that the pest will continue to spread naturally within Israel, as no efficient control measures are available (Novoselsky and Freidberg, 2016). Present, first found in October 2014 near Tel Aviv.
In Mexico, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was found infesting Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus during a survey conducted in 2015. This is the first report of T. peregrinus in Mexico and in North America (Jiménez-Quiroz et al., 2016). Present, first found in 2015.
Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi was first described in 2013 in Hungary from oozing bark cankers on Populus x euramericana trees. This bacterium was also identified in China on poplar trees (Populus x euramericana ‘74/16’ and ‘Zhonglin 46’) in the provinces of Henan and Shandong (EPPO RS 2015/057). More recently, L. quercina subsp. populi has been detected in Northern Spain on poplar hybrids. Symptoms were observed in 9 poplar plantations (Populus × interamericana ‘Beaupré,’ and Populus × euramericana ‘I-214’ and ‘MC’) in 5 localities of Castilla y León and Aragón during summer 2002, 2014, and 2015. (Berruete et al., 2016). Present, no details.
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (EPPO A2 List) occurs in Iran. The bacterium was found to be associated with outbreaks of bacterial spot in pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields in Marand county, East Azerbaijan province (Osdaghi et al., 2016). Present, no details.
- Detailed records
In the Czech Republic, surveys have been conducted in South Moravia to better understand the distribution of Grapevine Pinot gris virus (Trichovirus, GPGV). From 2013 to 2014, 21 grapevine mother plants used by nurseries for propagation were collected from South Moravia and tested for the presence of GPGV. This virus was found in all tested vines, sometimes in association with other viruses (i.e. Grapevine virus A, Grapevine fanleaf virus and Grapevine fleck virus). It is concluded that this study confirms the widespread occurrence of GPGV in South Moravia, a major vine-producing region, and suggests that the virus is disseminated by infected propagation material (Eichmeier et al., 2016).
On Asteraceae, ray blight is caused by three morphologically similar but phylogenetically distinct species: Stagonosporopsis chrysanthemi (EPPO A2 List), S. inoxydabilis and S. tanaceti. S. chrysanthemi is a specific pathogen of chrysanthemum while S. inoxydabilis has been found associated with various Asteraceae, and S. tanaceti has only been reported in Australia on pyrethrum. Three species-specific PCR tests, as well as a multiplex PCR test, have been developed to detect and identify these three Stagonosporopsis species (Vaghefi et al., 2016).
- New pests
A new bacterium has recently been isolated from diseased Pyrus pyrifolia (Chinese pear) in China. Affected trees were showing bleeding cankers. The name Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov. has been proposed (Tian et al., 2016).
A new bacterium has been isolated from diseased plant tissues collected from sweet and sour cherry trees (Prunus avium and P. cerasus) in Poland. Affected trees showed flower dieback and necrotic spots on shoots, leaves, and fruits. The name Pseudomonas cerasi sp. nov. (non Griffin, 1911) has been proposed (Kałużna et al., 2016).
A new chrysomelid species, Colaspis caligula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently been described in Argentina in association with grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Similar to other Colaspis species, C. caligula seems to be univoltine. Larvae feed primarily on lateral grapevine roots and overwinter in the soil. Larvae are the most damaging life stage, as their feeding activities on the root can reduce water and nutrient absorption and favour secondary fungal infections. In Argentina, adults have been collected from November until March. They feed on young grapevine leaves perforating irregular holes into the leaf surface; they may also feed on young shoots and petioles. It is noted that damage caused by adults is probably not significant on mature plants but might be more problematic in young grapevine plantations. For the moment no data is available on the potential economic impacts caused by C. caligula on grapevine production (Agrain et al., 2016).
During summer 2014, samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. ‘Romana’) showing mosaic, deformation and necrotic lesions were collected in a field near Latina (Lazio region), Italy. Studies revealed the presence of a new Potyvirus, tentatively called Lettuce Italian necrotic virus (LINV). Experiments also showed that Myzus persicae can transmit the virus in a non-persistent mode. LINV could also be mechanically transmitted to lettuce (cvs. ‘Riccia’ and ‘Parella’), as well as to Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor on which only chlorotic local lesions were observed (Ciuffo et al., 2016).
According to recent taxonomic studies, Phellinus weirii (=Inonotus weirii, Phellinidium weirii – EPPO A1 List) has been transferred into a new genus Coniferiporia gen. nov. (Zhou et al., 2016).
Agrain FA, Cabrera N, Holgado MG, Vicchi FR (2016) Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Zootaxa 4161(2), 228-236.
Berruete IM, Cambra MA, Collados R, Monterde A, López MM, Cubero J, Palacio-Bielsa A (2016) First report of bark canker disease of poplar caused by Lonsdalea quercina subp. populi in Spain. Plant Disease 100(10), p 2159.
Ciuffo M, Mammella M, Vallino M, Caciagli P, Turina M (2016) Molecular identification and biological characterization of a new potyvirus in lettuce. Archives of Virology 161(9), 2549-2554 (via PestLens).
Eichmeier A, Peňázová E, Pavelková R, Mynarzová Z, Saldarelli P (2016) Detection of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in certified grapevine stocks in Moravia, Czech Republic. Journal of Plant Pathology 98(1), 155-157.
Giliomee JH, Ueckermann EA (2016) First record of the invasive red palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Namibia. African Entomology 24(2), 530-532 (abst.).
Gómez Tenorio MA, Lupión Rodríguez B, Boix Ruiz A, Ruiz Olmos C, Moreno Díaz A, Marín Guirao JI, Pérez Molina G, García Raya P, Tello Marquina JC (2016) El mildiu nueva enfermedad de la albahaca en España. Phytoma España no. 282, 48-52.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – South Africa (ZAF-32-2 of 2016-09-01) First detection of Raoiella indica in South Africa. https://www.ippc.int/en/countries/south-africa/pestreports/2016/09/first-detection-of-raoiella-indica/
Jiménez-Quiroz E, Vanegas-Rico JM, Morales-Martínez O, Lomeli-Flores JR, Rodríguez-Leyva E (2016) First record of the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), in Mexico. Journal of agricultural and urban entomology 32(1),35-39 (abst. via PestLens).
Kałużna, M, Willems A, Pothier JF, Ruinelli M, Sobiczewski P, Puławska J (2016) Pseudomonas cerasi sp. nov. (non Griffin, 1911) isolated from diseased tissue of cherry. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 39(6), 370-377 (abst. via PestLens).
Novoselsky T, Freidberg A (2016) First record of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the Middle East, with biological notes on its relations with eucalyptus trees. Israel Journal of Entomology 46, 43-55.
NPPO of Sweden (2016-10).
Osdaghi E, Mohsen Taghavi S, Hamzehzarghani H, Lamichhane JR (2016) Occurrence and characterization of the bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria on pepper in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 164(10), 711-852.
Rung A (2016) A new pest of ficus in California: Macrohomotoma gladiata Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Homotomidae), new to North America. Check List 12(3), 1882. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15560/12.3.1882
Tian Y, Zhao Y, Yuan X, Yi J, Fan J, Xu Z, Hu B, De Boer S, Li X (2016) Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 66(8), 2831-2835 (abst. via PestLens).
Vaghefi N, Hay FS, Pethybridge SJ, Ford R, Taylor PWJ (2016) Development of a multiplex PCR diagnostic assay for the detection of Stagonosporopsis species associated with ray blight of Asteraceae. European Journal of Plant Pathology 146(3), 581–595.
Zhou LW, Vlasák J, Dai YC (2016) Taxonomy and phylogeny of Phellinidium (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota): A redefinition and the segregation of Coniferiporia gen. nov. for forest pathogens. Fungal Biology 120(8), 988-1001.