New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Brazil, plants of Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris cv. ‘Boro’ (red table beet) showing severe root symptoms resembling those of rhizomania were observed in November 2012 in a commercial field located in the municipality of São José do Rio Pardo (São Paulo state). The incidence of diseased plants was around 70%. Laboratory analysis (RT-PCR, sequencing) and pathogenicity tests confirmed the presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (Benyvirus, BNYVV – EPPO A2 List) in diseased plants. This is the first record of BNYVV from Brazil (Rezende et al., 2015). First found in 2012 on red table beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in the state of São Paulo.
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Crinivirus , CYSDV – EPPO A2 List) occurs in Sudan. The virus was detected in symptomatic samples of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) collected from 3 locations in the states of Khartoum and Gezira (Mohammed et al., 2014). Present, detected in Cucurbita maxima in the states of Khartoum and Gezira.
In Uganda, symptoms resembling those of bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae - EPPO A1 List) were observed in June 2013 in several rice crops in the districts of Butaleja, Iganga and Namutumba. Molecular (PCR assays and sequencing) and pathogenicity tests confirmed the identity of the bacterium (Afolabi et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2013 in several rice fields (Butaleja, Iganga and Namutumba districts).
In Saudi Arabia, the presence of Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was observed for the first time in January 2014 in field and greenhouse tomato crops near Riyad. Dense populations of Bemisia tabaci were present in all infected crops. Laboratory tests confirmed the identity of the virus (Al-Saleh et al., 2014). Present, first found in 2014 in field and greenhouse tomatoes near Riyad.
- Detailed records
Since the 2000s, bacterial wilt of bean caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (EPPO A2 List) has re-emerged in the Central High Plains (Nebraska, Colorado and Wyoming) where it has been identified in almost 500 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) fields. Losses in both yield and quality have been observed (Urrea et al., 2014).
Meloidogyne enterolobii (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in commercial crops of carrot (Daucus carota) in the province of Fujian (Dongshan county) in China. Many round to irregularly shaped lumps and swellings were observed on the surface of tap and fibrous roots, often with secondary roots emerging from the galls on taproots. Severe infestation caused short, stubby, forked taproots leading to losses in the quality and marketability of the carrots. This is the first time that M. enterolobii is reported from the province of Fujian and also the first time that it is found in carrots (Wang et al., 2014).
In Tunisia, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A2 List) was first found in 2011 in Carthage (EPPO RS 2011/235). Despite eradication efforts, the pest has progressively spread to other areas near Tunis, such as Belvedere, Kram, Marsa and Soukra (Nasraoui, 2014).
In August 2013, potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. ‘Banba’) showing symptoms of stolbur were observed in a 2-ha field near Drama, Northern Greece. Plants were 10 weeks old and displayed reddening and upward rolling of leaflets, smaller leaves, shortened internodes, and aerial tuber formation. In the affected field, it was estimated that the disease incidence reached 40%. Four symptomatic plants were collected and tested for the presence of phytoplasmas. Results confirmed the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (EPPO A2 List). This is the first time that ‘Ca. P. solani’ is found in diseased potatoes in Greece. On solanaceae, this pathogen had only been reported in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Datura stramonium (Holeva et al., 2014).
During surveys conducted in Alsace (France), symptoms resembling those of sharka were observed in a plum orchard (Prunus domestica cv. 'Quetsche d'Alsace') in spring 2013. Laboratory studies confirmed the presence of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) in these symptomatic trees, as well as in a nearby orchard. The PPV isolate detected in Alsace was characterized as a PPV-Rec strain. This is first time that PPV-Rec is reported from France. Further surveys carried out in Alsace in 2014 did not detect PPV-Rec in other areas of the region. In the focus area, eradication measures have been taken (Svanella et al., 2015).
In 2012, symptoms of Plum pox virus (Potyvirus, PPV – EPPO A2 List) were observed in 2 locations in a coastal area near Catania, Sicilia (IT). In spring 2013, samples were collected from symptomatic apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and peach (P. persica) trees. Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of PPV in diseased trees. Two PPV isolates from apricot (P. armeniaca cvs. ‘Carmen Top’ and ‘Ninfa’) were characterized as PPV-M. With the exception of a report from the 1980s which can no longer be traced, Sicilia was considered to be free from PPV. Eradication measures are being carried out by the regional plant protection service (Rizza et al., 2014).
Tomato chlorosis virus (Crinivirus, ToCV – EPPO A2 List) was detected in glasshouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants at the Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu province, China (Karwitha et al., 2014).
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (EPPO A1 List) occurs in the Chinese provinces of Anhui, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Yunnan (Ji et al., 2014).
Xiphinema rivesi (EPPO A2 List) has been detected in soil samples collected in March 2013 during a survey of cherry orchards in Chelan county, Washington (US). These cherry orchards were also known to be infected by Cherry rasp leaf virus (Cheravirus – EPPO A1 List). This is the first time that X. rivesi is reported from Washington state (Akinbade et al., 2014).
A new genus- and species-specific diagnostic method for pospiviroids has been developed in Italy. The method involves RT-PCR amplification of viroidal RNA using universal pospiviroid primers for genus detection, after which the amplified DNA is analysed by RFLP for identification at species level (Luigi et al., 2014).
A new real-time PCR assay has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the detection of Spiroplasma citri (EU annexes), the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, in field samples (Wang et al., 2015).
Species-specific PCR primers have been developed in Taiwan for the detection of the following 10 species of thrips of agricultural and horticultural importance: Frankliniella cephalica, F. intonsa, F. occidentalis (EPPO A2 List), Megalurothrips usitatius, Microcephalothrips abdominalis, Scirtothrips dorsalis (EPPO A2 List), Thrips hawaiiensis, T. imaginis, T. palmi (EPPO A1 List), and T. tabaci. In addition, a multiplex PCR test has been developed to distinguish F. occidentalis from other thrips species (T. tabaci, T. hawaiiensis and F. intonsa) which are commonly found in imported agricultural products and field-collected samples (Yeh et al., 2014).
- New pests
In 2006, a new canker disease was observed on poplar trees (Populus x euramericana ‘74/16’ and ‘Zhonglin 46’) in the provinces of Henan and Shandong, in China. Symptoms were characterized by bark cankers with white exudate dripping from the lesions. In cases of severe infection, tree mortality has been observed. Laboratory studies confirmed the presence of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi in diseased poplar trees (Li et al., 2014). This bacterium was first described from isolates collected in Hungary from oozing bark cankers on P. x euramericana trees (Tóth et al., 2013).
Afolabi O, Milan B, Poulin I, Ongom J, Szurek B, Koebnik R, Silue D (2014) First report of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causing bacterial leaf streak of rice in Uganda. Plant Disease 98(11), p 1579.
Akinbade SA, Mojtahedi H, Guerra L, Eastwell K, Villamor DEV, Handoo ZA, Skantar AM (2014) First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State. Plant Disease 98(7), 1018-1018.
Al-Saleh MA, Al-Shahwan IM, Shakeel MT, Amer MA, Orfanidou CG, Katis NI (2014) First report of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato crops in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease 98(11), 1590-1591.
Holeva MC, Glynos PE, Karafla CD, Koutsioumari M, Simoglou KB, Eleftheriadis E (2014) First report of Candidatus Phytoplasma solani associated with potato plants in Greece. Plant Disease 98(12), p 1738.
Ji ZY, Zakria M, Zou LF, Xiong L, Li Z, Ji GH, Chen GY (2014) Genetic diversity of transcriptional activator-like effector genes in Chinese isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola. Phytopathology 104(7), 672-682.
Karwitha M Feng Z, Yao M, Chen X, Zhang W, Liu X, Tao X (2014) The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA 1 of a Chinese isolate of Tomato chlorosis virus. Journal of Phytopathology 162(6), 411-415.
Li Y, He W, Ren F, Guo L, Chang J, Cleenwerck I, Ma Y, Wang H (2014) A canker disease of Populus × euramericana in China caused by Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi. Plant Disease 98(3), 368-378.
Luigi M, Costantini E, Luison D, Mangiaracina P, Tomassoli L, Faggioli F (2014) A diagnostic method for the simultaneous detection and identification of pospiviroids. Journal of Plant Pathology 96(1), 151-158.
Mohammed HS, Zicca S, Manglli A, Mohamed ME, El Siddig MA, Tomassoli L, El Hussein AA (2014) Identification and phylogenetic analysis of common pumpkin viruses in Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology 96(1), 77-94.
Nasraoui B (2014) Eradication battle against the red palm weevil: is there any chance to avoid disaster before it happens in the oases of Southern Tunisia? Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter no. 62, p 3.
Rezende JAM, Camelo VM, Flôres D, Mello APOA, Kitajima EW, Bedendo IP (2015) First report of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus on red table beet in Brazil. Plant Disease 99(3), p 423.
Rizza S, Conti F, Pasquini G, Tessitori M (2014) First report of Plum pox virus strain M isolates in apricot in Sicily, Italy. Plant Disease 98(11), 1591-1592.
Svanella-Dumas L, Candresse T, Maurice I, Blin V, Quaren R, Birgaentzle C (2015) First report of the presence of Plum pox virus Rec strain in France. Plant Disease 99(3), p 421.
Tóth T, Lakatos T, Koltay A (2013) Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi subsp. nov., isolated from bark canker of poplar trees. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63, 2309-2313.
Urrea CA, Harveson RM (2014) Identification of sources of bacterial wilt resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plant Disease 98(7), 973-976.
Wang X, Doddapaneni H, Chen J, Yokomi RK (2015) Improved real-time PCR diagnosis of citrus stubborn disease by targeting prophage genes of Spiroplasma citri. Plant Disease 99(1), 149-154.
Wang YF, Xiao S, Huang YK, Zhou X, Zhang SS, Liu GK (2014) First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on carrot in China. Plant Disease 98(7), 1019-1019.
Yeh WB, Tseng MJ, Chang NT, Wu SY, Tsai YS (2014) Development of species-specific primers for agronomical thrips and multiplex assay for quarantine identification of Western flower thrips. Journal of Economic Entomology 107(5), 1728-1735.