First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Spain: Addition to the EPPO Alert List
In autumn 2000, a disease caused considerable losses in protected cucumber crops (Cucumis sativus) in the Poniente area of Almería, Spain. Infected plants showed vein clearing followed by leaf chlorosis and yellow/green chlorotic spots on fruits. These symptoms together with the presence of Bemisia tabaci in the crops suggested the possible occurrence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a virus which is reported to be widespread in the Middle East on cucurbits. This was then confirmed by using molecular assays. Symptoms associated with this virus were found in about 70 ha of glasshouses and the affected cucumber crops were destroyed in order to prevent any further spread of the disease. In the same region, in spring 2001, CVYV was mainly found in watermelon crops (Citrullus lanatus), occasionally causing splitting of the fruits. In melon crops (Cucumis melo), fruits did not show this type of symptom, but many plants dried out rapidly (‘sudden death’), and the presence of CVYV was suspected. Control measures are being applied and are primarily based on the control of B. tabaci (adequate glasshouse screens, double doors, treatment of infected vegetable residues, resting period of at least 1 month between two cucurbit crops). CVYV has filamentous particles (740-800 nm long, 15-18 nm diameter), with pinwheel inclusions and is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci in semi-persistent mode. Recent studies (Lecoq et al., 2000) suggest that CVYV could be considered as a tentative new member of the genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. This is the first report of CVYV in Spain. As this virus could present a threat to cucurbits grown outdoor in Mediterranean countries or under glasshouses in the EPPO region, the EPPO Secretariat felt that it could be added to the EPPO Alert List.
Cucumber vein yellowing virus
Why: Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) came to our attention because of its recent introduction into Spain and the damage it is causing there.
Where: CVYV was first described in Israel on cucumber (Cohen & Nitzany, 1960). In 1985, it was reported from Jordan (Al Musa et al., 1985). In 1989, it was detected for the first time in Turkey (Yilmaz et al., 1989). It occurs also in Sudan (Desbiez et al., 2001) and probably also in Saudi Arabia and Syria (found in Internet but could not be confirmed from literature, so far). Found for the first time in 2000, in Spain, in the region of Almería.
On which plants: Restricted to Cucurbitaceae. Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita pepo, C. moschata, C. foetidissima, Citrullus lanatus, C. colocynthis.
Damage: Vein clearing followed by leaf chlorosis and yellow/green chlorotic spots on fruits. Little data is available on the severity of the disease in the Middle East. In Jordan, Mansour (1994) reported that in 1992, CVYV could be detected in 43% of tested samples collected from cucumber crops grown under plastic. Losses are reported from Spain, but no figures are given.
Transmission: Transmitted in a semi-persistent manner by Bemisia tabaci. Mechanical transmission.
Pathway: Plants for planting of Cucurbitaceae from countries where CVYV occurs, fruits?, viruliferous B. tabaci.
Possible risks: Cucurbitaceae are widely grown in the EPPO region, outdoor in southern countries and under protected conditions in northern countries. The vector B. tabaci is present in many EPPO countries. This virus could present a threat to cucurbits grown outdoors in Mediterranean countries or under glasshouses in the whole EPPO region.
EPPO RS 2001/143
Panel review date - Entry date 2001-08
Al Musa, A.M.; Qusus, S.J.; Mansour, A.N. (1985) Cucumber vein yellowing virus on cucumber in Jordan. Plant Disease, 69(4), p 361.
Cohen, S.; Nitzany, F.E. (1960) A whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbits in Israel. Phytopathologia Mediterrannea, 1(1), 44-46 (abst).
Cuadrado, I.M.; Janssen, D.; Velasco, L.; Ruiz, L.; Segundo, E. (2001) Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) now in Spain. ESWN Newsletter, no. 8, January 2001, p 3.
Cuadrado, I.M.; Janssen, D.; Velasco, L.; Ruiz, L.; Segundo, E. (2001) First report of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Spain. Plant Disease, 85(3), p 336.
Desbiez, C., Delecolle, B.; Wipf-Scheibel, C. ; Lecoq, H. (2001) Le Cucumber vein yellowing virus, virus transmis par l’aleurode Bemisia tabaci, est un member des Ipomovirus, Potyviridae. Abstract of a paper presented at the ‘8èmes Rencontres de virology végétale’, Aussois (FR), 2001-03-11/15.
Janssen, D.; Cuadrado, I.M. (2001) Whitefly problems escalate within Spanish cucurbit crops…ESWN Newsletter, no. 10, January 2001, 1-2.
Lecoq, H.; Desbiez, C.; Delécolle, B. ; Cohen, S. ; Mansour, A. (2000) Cytological and molecular evidence that the whitefly-transmitted Cucumber vein yellowing virus is a tentative member of the family Potyviridae. Journal of General Virology, 81(9), 2289-2293 (abst.).
Mansour, A. (1994) Incidence of cucurbit viruses affecting cucumber in plastic houses in Jordan. Dirasat. Series B, Pure and Applied Sciences, 21(4), 175-179 (abst.).
Yimaz, M.A.; Ozaslan, M.; Ozaslan, D. (1989) Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Cucurbitaceae in Turkey. Plant Disease, 73(7), p 610.