New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. Information sent by NPPOs has also been included here. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In Russia, the presence of Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in 2010, in Krasnodar (Southern Russia). Other invasive insect species: Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae), Obolodiplosis robiniae, Parectopa robiniella and Phyllonorycter robiniella were also found (Gninenko et al., 2011). Present in Southern Russia (Krasnodar).
Citrus exocortis viroid (Pospiviroid, CEVd) was detected for the first time in Slovenia in 2010. CEVd was detected on symptomless Solanum jasminoides potted plants which had originally been imported from the Netherlands (Virscek Marn ; Mavric Plasko, 2011). Present, few records.
In Australia, a new pathotype of Elsinoe australis (EU Annexes) has been detected on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plantations in New South Wales and Queensland in 2005. However, this pathogen has not been found on sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) in Australia (IPPC, 2011).
In summer 2009, Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus, IYSV – formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected on onions (Allium cepa) and weeds in Burgenland and Niederösterreich, Austria (Ellner ; Gossmann, 2010). Present, only in some areas.
In February 2012, Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was reported for the first time from Mozambique. The pest was mainly found on Eucalyptus saligna, E. camaldulensis and hybrids E. grandis x E. camaldulensis. According to preliminary studies, the pest is present in the South and Central parts of the country (IPPC, 2012). Present in the Southern and Central areas.
The presence of Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1 - EU Annexes) is reported for the first time in Turkey. In July-August 2007 and 2008, bronzed leaves were observed on the upper shoots of fruitless sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium cv. ‘Napoleon’) in an orchard located in Osmaniye (Mediterranean region). In October 2008, out-of-season flowering was also observed; flowers showed pink petals and bronze sepals. Molecular assays confirmed the occurrence of LChV-1 in symptomatic trees (Ulubas Serçe et al., 2011). Present, only in some areas.
Papaya ringspot virus (Potyvirus, PRSV) was found for the first time in Finland in September 2011. PRSV was detected in glasshouse cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) showing unusual symptoms. The identity of the virus was confirmed by the laboratory of Fera (GB). The origin of the disease is unknown. All infected plants were destroyed. The pest status of Papaya ringspot virus in Finland is officially declared as: Present, under eradication (NPPO of Finland, 2011).
Plasmopara obducens (formerly EPPO Alert List) was detected for the first time in Hungary in July 2010. Diseased Impatiens walleriana hybrid plants were first observed in a city garden in Budapest. In this garden, the disease developed rapidly causing premature leaf fall and final collapse of all impatiens plants (3000 plants). Further observations showed that 10 other areas where impatiens was planted were affected in gardens of Budapest. In total, approximately 8000 plants were considered to be infected and destroyed in the affected gardens (Vajna, 2011). Present, found in Budapest, under official control.
Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) was detected for the first time in Greece in 2009 during a survey on ornamental plants. PSTVd was detected in symptomless Brugmansia and Solanum jasminoides from 3 nurseries located in different areas of Greece. In all cases, phytosanitary measures were taken (Malandraki et al., 2010). Present, detected on solanaceous ornamentals, under official control.
During the development of a new multiplex RT-PCR assay, the presence of Potato spindle tuber viroid (Pospiviroid, PSTVd – EPPO A2 List) was detected in 2 samples which had been collected in 2008 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in the Fukushima prefecture, Japan (Matsushita et al., 2010). Present, detected on solanaceous ornamentals.
Pseudocercospora (Phaeoramularia) angolensis (EPPO A1 List) has recently been detected in Sierra Leone (Harling et al., 2010). In 2006, citrus fruit and leaves showing dark brown lesions were noticed in citrus orchards around Makeni (Bombali district, central Sierra Leone). In 2008, similar symptoms were observed near Kabala (Koinadugu district, northeast of the country bordering Guinea) on mature fruit of mandarins (Citrus reticulata). In April 2008, the presence of P. angolensis was confirmed in samples of diseased mandarins which had been collected from an orchard near Kabala. In this area, growers have reported severe yield losses (more than 75 %). Present, observed near Makeni and Kabala (Bombali and Koinadugu districts, respectively).
- Detailed records
In Italy, the presence of Citrus exocortis viroid (Pospiviroid, CEVd) was detected in Lycianthes (=Solanum) rantonnettii and Cestrum auricantum during a survey conducted in 2009/2010 (Luigi et al., 2011). CEVd was also detected in Solanum jasminoides during another survey in Puglia (Torchetti et al., 2011), as well as in Lazio in an old plant of S. jasminoides (more than 20-years-old) (Sorrentino et al., 2011).
Strawberry vein banding virus (Caulimovirus – EPPO A2 List) occurs on strawberry in Victoria, Australia (Constable et al., 2010).
- New host plants
An extensive survey was initiated in 2011 in Portugal, following the discovery of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (EPPO Alert List) in 2010 (EPPO RS 2011/054). In Lago-Braga (Douro province), symptoms of bacterial canker were observed on 3-year-old plants of Actinidia deliciosa cv. ‘Tsechelidis’ (a new kiwifruit cultivar developed in Greece). Laboratory analysis confirmed the presence of P. syringae pv. actinidiae in symptomatic plants. This is the first report of P. syringae pv. actinidiae on the cultivar Tsechelidis (Balestra et al., 2011).
- New pests
Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV) is a new Begomovirus which has recently been described on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Peru. This virus is associated with a severe disease causing curling and deformation of leaves, as well as plant stunting. High disease incidence and significant yield losses have been reported in tomato crops along the Pacific Ocean coast of Peru since the early 2000s. Disease epidemics are also associated with infestations by Bemisia tabaci (Márquez-Martín et al., 2011).
Tomato necrotic ring virus (TNRV) is a new Tospovirus which has recently been described on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum) in Thailand. In 2008, tomato plants showing distinct yellowing and necrotic rings on leaves and fruits were observed in screenhouse crops in Chiang Mai, and the presence of this new tospovirus was confirmed in diseased plants. TNRV was also detected from capsicum leaves showing necrotic rings. TNRV is transmitted by Ceratothripoides claratis and Thrips palmi. Preliminary surveys have suggested that TNRV is probably widespread in Thailand, but its impact on tomato and capsicum crops remains to be evaluated (Matsushita et al., 2011).
Balestra GM, Renzi M, Mazzaglia A (2011) Occurrence of bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit plants of cv. Tsechelidis. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.86.
Constable FE, Bottcher C, Kelly G, Nacarrow N, Milinkovic, Persely DM, Rodoni BC (2010) The seasonal detection of strawberry viruses in Victoria, Australia. 21st International Conference on virus and other graft transmissible diseases of fruit crops (2009-07-05/10, Neustadt, DE). Julius-Kühn-Archiv no. 427, 27-34.
Ellner F, Gossmann M (2010) [The occurrence of Iris yellow spot virus on onions and weeds in Austria]. 57 Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung (2010-09-06/09, Berlin). Julius-Kühn-Archiv no. 428, 191-192 (in German).
Gninenko YI, Kostukov VV, Kosheleva OV (2011) [New invasive insects in the forests and greenery of the Krasnodar krai]. Zashita i Karantin Rastenii no. 4, 49-50 (in Russian).
Harling R, Shamie IMO, Sesay SS, Kamara AB, Reeder R, Boa E, Kelly P (2010) First report of Pseudocercospora angolensis causing leaf and fruit spot of Citrus in Sierra Leone. New Disease Reports 22,1. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2010.022.001
Hassani-Mehraban A, Cheewachaiwit S, Relevante C, Kormelink R, Peters D (2011) Tomato necrotic ring virus (TNRV), a recently described tospovirus infecting tomato and pepper in Thailand. European Journal of Plant Pathology 130(4), 449-456.
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Australia. Detection of a new pathotype of Elsinoe australis causing black scab of jojoba in New South Wales and Queensland (2011-10-28). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
IPPC website. Official Pest Reports – Mozambique. Occurrence of Eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa in Mozambique (2012-02-09). https://www.ippc.int/index.php
Luigi M, Luison D, Tomassoli L, Faggioli F (2011) Natural spread and molecular analysis of pospiviroids infecting ornamentals in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(2), 491-495.
Malandraki I, Papachristopoulou M, Vassilakos N (2010) First report of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) in ornamental plants in Greece. New Disease Reports 21, 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2010.021.009
Márquez-Martín B, Aragón-Caballero L, Fiallo-Olivé E, Navas-Castillo J, Moriones E (2011) Tomato leaf deformation virus, a novel begomovirus associated with a severe disease of tomato in Peru. European Journal of Plant Pathology 129(1), 1-7.
Matsushita Y, Usugi T, Tsuda S (2010) Development of a multiplex RT-PCR detection and identification system for Potato spindle tuber viroid and Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid. European Journal of Plant Pathology 128(2), 165-170.
NPPO of Finland (2011-12).
Plenk A, Grausgruber-Gröger S (2011) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onions (Allium cepa) in Austria. New Disease Reports 23, 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2011.023.013
Sorrentino R, Torchetti EM, Navarro B, Ragozzino E, Di Serio F, Alioto D (2011) Citrus exocortis viroid infecting twenty year old Solanum jasminoides plants in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.89.
Torchetti EM, Navarro B, Di Serio F (2011) First record of Citrus exocortis viroid infecting Solanum jasminoides in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.76.
Ulubas Serçe C, Gazel, Çaglayan K (2011) First report of Little cherry virus 1 in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.66.
Vajna L (2011) First report of Plasmopara obducens on impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) in Hungary. New Disease Reports 24, 13. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024013
Virscek Marn M, Mavric Plesko I (2011) Detection of Citrus exocortis viroid in Solanum jasminoides in Slovenia. Journal of Plant Pathology 93(4S), S4.79.