Findings of Cacopsylla fulguralis in France and United Kingdom: addition to the EPPO Alert List
In November 1999, a new pest Cacopsylla fulguralis (Homoptera, Psyllidae) was found in France on Elaeagnus x ebbingei. It was first found in two nurseries near Saint-Pol-de-Leon in Bretagne, and then in several other regions (Pays de Loire, Centre, Ile de France, Haute Normandie and also in Montpellier). In United Kingdom, it was first found in England at a nursery in the north-west in November 2000 on plants imported from France, but could not be identified at that time due to the absence of adults. Between March and June 2002, it was found in private gardens in Leigh-on-Sea (Essex), Selsey and Brighton (West Sussex) and Cobham and Woking (Surrey). C. fulguralis was also found in Liverpool (Merseyside) and at a nursery in Hampshire. In each case, large infestations were damaging Elaeagnus plants. In March 2002, high populations of C. fulguralis were reported in Guernsey causing serious economic damage to Eleagnus x ebbingei hedges. The origin of this outbreak is unknown, but it is suspected that the pest has been present in UK since 1999. The NPPO of UK suggested that C. fulguralis could be added to the EPPO Alert List.
Cacopsylla fulguralis (Homoptera, Psyllidae) – Elaeagnus sucker
Why: Due to the recent introduction of Cacopsylla fulguralis in France, Guernsey and United Kingdom and the damage it causes to Elaeagnus plants, the NPPO of UK suggested that C. fulguralis could be added to the EPPO Alert List
Where: Recently introduced into Europe, in France, Guernsey and United Kingdom (England). C. fulguralis originates from Asia. It occurs in: China, Korea Republic, Philippines, Taiwan.
On which plants: Its host range seems to be limited to ornamental Elaeagnus: E. cuprea, E. x ebbingei, E. glabra, E. macrophylla, E. oldhamii, E. pungens. It does not develop on E. angustifolia, or E. multiflora.
Damage: Adults and nymphs of C. fulguralis feed on plant sap and produce copious amounts of honeydew on which sooty mould develops. They usually feed on the underside of leaves. High infestations of C. fulguralis lead to chlorosis, leaf drop and die back. Nursery plants can be severely disfigured and unmarketable. No data is available on the possible transmission of viruses by C. fulguralis. Adults are 2.0-2.5 mm long (resembling C. pyricola) with membranous wings and strong hind legs adapted for jumping. Nymphs are cream-yellow with dark brown transverse markings.
Dissemination: C. fulguralis can spread naturally (adults can fly). Over long distances, infested Elaeagnus plants can disseminate the pest.
Pathway: Plants for planting of Elaeagnus from countries where C. fulguralis occurs.
Possible risks: Ornamental Elaeagnus species are widely planted in Europe in amenity parks and private gardens (in particular in coastal areas due to its tolerance to salt), and the production of these plants is increasing. Damage is reported in areas where it has been introduced. In particular, nurseries producing Elaeagnus could be at risk. More data is needed on biology of the pest, possible virus transmission, and potential control methods.
EPPO RS 2002/116
Panel review date: -
Entry date 2002-07
Cocquempot, C.; Germain, J.F. (2002) Un nouveau ravageur de l´Elaeagnus x ebbingei en France : Cacopsylla fulguralis. PHM Revue Horticole, no. 416, 32-34.
Malumphy, C.; MacLeod, A.; Matthews, L. (2002) Plant Pest Notice no. 32, CSL, UK, 3 pp.
Site de la Bibliothèque du SRPV Centre. Cacopsylla fulguralis. http://www.srpv-centre.com