Addition of Heterodera glycines to the EPPO Alert List
As reported in EPPO RS 2001/039 Heterodera glycines was found for the first time in Europe, in Italy. Although H. glycines is already listed as an A1 quarantine pest, the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations decided that this pest should specifically be added to the Alert List. The purpose is to warn all EPPO member countries about the potential threat that H. glycines represents to European soybean production.
Heterodera glycines – an A1 nematode introduced into the EPPO region
Why: Heterodera glycines has been found in Italy in 2000. The EPPO Working Party on phytosanitary regulations considered that this introduction represented a serious threat to European soybean production and that H. glycines, although already listed as an A1 quarantine pest, should be added to the EPPO Alert List to warn all EPPO member countries.
EPPO region: Italy (found in 2000, in 3 soybean fields in Lombardia near Pavia), Egypt, Russia (Amur District in the Far East only).
Asia: China (Hebei, Hubei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning), Indonesia (Java only), Japan, Korea Democratic People’s Republic, Korea Republic, Russia (Far East).
North America: Canada (Ontario), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wisconsin).
South America: Argentina, Brazil (Goias, Matto Grosso do Sul, Matto Grosso, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo), Colombia, Ecuador, Puerto Rico.
On which plants: Soybean (Glycine max) is the major economic host of H. glycines. Other cultivated hosts, mainly Fabaceae, are Lespedeza spp., Lupinus albus, Penstemon spp., Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia villosa, Vigna angularis and V. radiata. Many weeds can be hosts of H. glycines (e.g. Cerastium holosteoides, Lamium amplexicaule and Stellaria media).
Damage: H. glycines is a bisexual cyst-forming species which feeds on roots. Affected plants show stunting and discoloration (yellow dwarf disease). At low to moderate infestation levels, there is over-production of lateral roots. A low rate of nodulation may also be observed. In the field, there are three to five generations per year. Optimum development occurs at 23-28°C; development stops below 14°C and above 34°C. In the absence of a host, contents of cysts may remain viable in soil for 6-8 years. H. glycines is a major pest of soybean in Asia, Brazil and USA, causing significant crop losses and economic damage. In Japan, it interacts with the fungus Phialophora gregata on Vigna angularis, and in USA with Fusarium solani causing sudden death syndrome of soybean.
Pathway: Soil, plants for planting of host plants from countries where H. glycines occurs.
Possible risks: Considering the existing distribution of H. glycines in Asia and the Americas, and its recent introduction in Italy, it seems most likely that it can survive in the EPPO region. Soybean is an expanding crop in the EPPO region, and this may continue as there is an increasing need for plant proteins, in particular for animal feed. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent any further spread of this pest and if possible to achieve eradication in Italy.
EPPO RS 2002/091
Panel review date: -
Entry date 2002-06
EPPO/CABI (1996) Heterodera glycines. In Quarantine Pests for Europe. 2nd edition (Ed. by Smith, I.M.; McNamara, D.G.; Scott, P., P.R.; Holderness, M.), CABI, Wallingford, UK, 607-611.
EPPO Reporting Service nos: 95/029, 96/157 96/158, 96/197, 97/005, 97/084, 99/126, 2000/022, 2001/039.