Phyllonorycter issikii (Lime leaf miner): addition to the EPPO Alert List
The EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry is currently reviewing the risks presented by forestry pests originating from the Russian Far East. During this process, it has studied Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and concluded that this leaf miner which attacks lime trees (Tilia spp.) and which has recently been introduced into new areas should be added to the EPPO Alert List. The information used for the EPPO Alert list has been taken from an EPPO Data sheet originally drafted by Dr Bassova (Russia) and from a PRA done by the EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry.
Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae – Lime leaf miner)
Why :The EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry decided that Phyllonorycter issikii, a leaf miner of Tilia spp., should be added to the EPPO Alert List because it has recently been found into new areas (e.g. in Lithuania, Noreika, 1998, Ukraine and several locations in European Russia).
EPPO region: Lithuania (recently introduced, found in Pagėgiai park in Šilutė district and Vilnius city on T. cordata), Russia (South of the Far East; South and centre of the European part – introduced into the cities of Voronezh, Samara, Ufa, Moscow and their vicinities), Ukraine (introduced).
Asia: Korea, Russia (South of the Far East), Japan.
On which plants: Tilia cordata (preferred host), T. amurensis, T. mandshurica, T. maximowicziana and other Tilia, but also Betula platyphylla. More data is needed on the susceptibility of T. platyphyllos or T. europaea, which are widely planted in western Europe.
Damage: P. issikii has two generations. Adults (brownish moths with a wingspan of 7-7.5 mm) are characterized by seasonal dimorphism. Moths fly from the end of June till the middle of July. The second generation develops from the end of July till the end of August. Overwintering stages are pupae and adults. Larvae make rather large elliptical mines in the lower side of leaves of Tilia trees. For example, in 1987 in Voronezh region of European Russia, 70% of lime leaves were damaged. Presence of many leaf mines may lead to a considerable reduction of the ornamental quality and vigour of Tilia trees.
Dissemination: Data on the natural spread of P. issikii (adults are flying) is lacking. Over long distances, the introduction of eggs, larvae and pupae to new areas is possible with plants for planting with leaves originating in areas of its distribution. Pupae can be introduced with fallen leaves (with soil).
Pathway: Plants for planting, leaves of Tilia with soil or vehicles, cut branches from countries where P. issikii occurs.
Possible risks: Tilia species are widely grown in the EPPO region, especially for ornamental purposes. The pest causes serious damage to ornamental trees in countries where it occurs. It has entered and established in several new regions and is probably able to establish in many other EPPO countries.
EPPO RS 2003/062
Panel review date - Entry date 2003-05
EPPO Data sheet originally drafted by Dr Bassova (Russia), 2003.
Pest Risk Assessment done by the EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry, 2003.
Noreika, R. (1998) Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidaee) in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, Entomologia, 8(3), 34-37.
Available also on Internet - http://server.ekoi.lt/library/acta_zoologica/1998/AZL98-3-34-37.pdf