EPPO Global Database

Phytoplasma ulmi(PHYPUL)

Distribution details in Italy

Situation
Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2009: Present, restricted distribution
Comments
Although 'elm yellows' observed in North America and Europe present different symptoms and disease severity, the phytoplasmas associated with them are very closely related (if not belonging to the same species).

EPPO Reporting Service (1994/65) : increasing molecular biological evidence that the phytopalsma causing elm yellows in Italy is very closely related to that causing phloem necrosis in USA.

EPPO Reporting Service (1995/108) : elm witches' broom in Basilicata.

EPPO Reporting Service (1995/109) : more evidence from DNA analysis that American elm yellows and European elm witches broom are caused by very closely related phytoplasms, also closely related to those causing yellows of alder.

EPPO Reporting Service (2003/095) : phytoplasmas causing elm yellows in Italy and elsewhere in Europe belong to distinct groups from that causing the disease in North America.

EPPO Reporting Service (2009/217) : elm yellows has been recorded from several regions (e.g. Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lombardia, Toscana) on Ulmus glabra, U. minor, and U. pumila. In 2006, ‘Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi’ was detected for the first time on bonsai plants of Ulmus parvifolia and Zelkova serrata in a nursery near Ancona (Marche region). Affected plants showed total or partial leaf chlorosis, foliar reddening, stunting, and witches’ brooms. This was the first record of elm yellows in bonsais, and in Zelkova.
References
* Carraro L, Ferrini F, Ermacora P, Loi N, Martini M, Osler R (2004) Macropsis mendax as a vector of elm yellows phytoplasma of Ulmus species. Plant Pathology 53(1), 90-95.

* Durante G, Quaglino F, Bianco PA, Casati P (2007) Sequencing of the ribosomal protein gene rpl16 from ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ infecting a historic Ulmus minor. Bulletin of Insectology 60 (2), 361-362.

* Lee, I.M. et al. (1993) Genetic relatedness of MLOs detected in Ulmus spp. in the United States and Italy by means of DNA probes and polymerase chain reaciton. Phytopathology 83, 829-833.

* Murolo S, Romanazzi G (2008) Infections of Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi in Ulmus parvifolia, Ulmus sp. and Zelkova serrata trained as bonsais. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (2), 345-349.

* Romanazzi G, Murolo S (2008) 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi' causing yellows in Zelkova serrata newly reported in Italy. Plant Pathology 57(6), p 1174.
Situation in neighbouring countries
Country State Status
Austria Absent, no pest record view...
France Present, restricted distribution view...
Slovenia Present, restricted distribution view...