New data for quarantine pests and pests on the EPPO Alert List
By browsing through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included on the EPPO Alert List. The situation of the pest concerned is indicated in bold, using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Cryphonectria parasitica (EPPO A2 list) is reported for the first time from the Czech Republic. It was observed in one chestnut tree (Castanea sativa) in the town of Uherský Brod (Jankovský et al., 2004). Present, only in 1 site.
In Iran, a survey on cyst nematodes revealed the presence of Heterodera glycines (EPPO Action List A2). This is the first record of this species in Iran (Maafi et al., 2004). Present, no details.
In Paraguay, Heterodera glycines (EPPO Action List A2) was found for the first time in 2002/2003, in the Caaguazu province (Centurión et al., 2004). Present, first found in 2002/2003, in Caaguazu province.
During a survey on virus diseases of Rubus, the presence of Raspberry ringspot nepovirus (EPPO A2 list) was detected in Romania (Isac et al., 2004). Present, no details.
Phakopsora euvitis (EPPO Alert List) was found for the first time in Brazil in March 2001, in vineyards of table grapes in the north-west of Paraná. Grapevine rust was later found in other vineyards in São Paulo and Mato Grosso (Tessmann et al., 2004; de Souza, 2004). Present, first found in 2001, only in some areas (Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso).
Phakopsora pachyrhizi (EPPO Alert List) is reported to occur in Bolivia (Yorinori et al., 2004). Present, no details.
Venturia nashicola (EU Annexes) is reported as an economically important disease of pear in China. It infects fruits, leaves and young shoots, resulting in significant annual yield losses on pears, especially on traditional Chinese varieties (Li et al., 2005). The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of this fungus in China. Present, no details.
- Detailed records
Surveys were done in Nigeria on host plants of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae – EPPO A2 list), at Samaru and its surroundings from 2000 to 2002. 42 plant species (35 cultivated and 7 wild species) were found infested by B. tabaci. Results showed that in the region of Samaru (North of Nigeria), B. tabaci has a wide host range and occurs both during dry and wet seasons, in lowlands and highlands (Alegbejo & Banwo, 2005).
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (EPPO A2 list) is occurring in the State of Goias and in the Federal District of Brazil (Uesugi et al., 2003).
In the Caribbean Basin, the presence of Diaphorina citri (EPPO A1 list – vector of citrus huanglongbing) is reported from the Cayman Islands, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico (Halbert and Núñez, 2004). The EPPO Secretariat had previously no data on the occurrence of the pest in these countries.
Nacobbus aberrans (EPPO A1 list) occurs in the State of Puebla, Mexico (González-Pérez et al., 2004).
In India, Phakopsora pachyrhizi (EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Rajasthan (Gupta and Kaur, 2004).
In New Zealand, an isolated outbreak of Synchytrium endobioticum (EPPO A2 list) was found in a domestic garden in Southland (South Island). Eradication measures are being applied (Anonymous, 2005).
Tomato yellow leaf curl begomovirus (EPPO A2 list) is reported from South Carolina (US). Symptomatic tomato plants were observed in 2005 at several locations near Charleston (Ling et al., 2006).
On the basis of field surveys, phytosanitary inspections of plant material intended for export and literature searches, it is considered that Ditylenchus dipsaci does not occur in India (Rajan and Arjun Lal, 2005).
- New host plants
In Washington State (US), Iris yellow spot tospovirus (EPPO Alert List) was first found in 2003. It rapidly spread to all onion-producing counties, affecting seed and bulb crops. In 2005, it was also detected in a collection of wild onions, infecting Allium pskemense, A. vavilovii and A. altaicum (Pappu et al., 2006).
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO Alert List) was isolated from Adiantum jordanii and A. aleuricum (Adiantaceae) growing at two forest sites in California (US). Affected ferns showed brown spots which may coalesce, killing entire leaves, but the disease did not appear to be fatal to the ferns (Vettraino et al., 2006).
In Georgia (US), natural infections by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV - EPPO A2 list) were unexpectedly detected in asymptomatic Pinus seedlings and trees. No thrips could be observed feeding on Pinus during this study. There is no indication that TSWV can cause damage to pine trees, but Pinus species may act as reservoirs and play a role in the epidemiology of the virus (Mullis et al., 2006).
Alegbejo MD, Banwo OO (2005) Host plants of Bemisia tabaci Genn. in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Plant Protection Research 45(2), 93-98.
Anonymous (2005) Plant kingdom records 18/12/2004 – 04/02/2005. Validated new to New Zealand reports. Biosecurity no. 58, p 21.
Centurión FM, Shimizu K, Momota Y (2004) First record of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe from Paraguay. Japanese Journal of Nematology 34(1) 39-42 (abst.).
González-Pérez E, Yáñez-Morales M, Santiago-Santiago V, Montero-Pineda A (2004) Fungi biodiversity on pepper wilt and some related factors in Tlacotepec de José Manzo, El Verde, Puebla. Agrociencia (Montecillo) 38(6), 653-661 (abst.).
Gupta VP, Kaur A (2004) Phakopsora pachyrhizi – soybean rust pathogen new to Rajasthan. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 34(1), p 151 (abst.).
Halbert SE, Núñez CA (2004) Distribution of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Rhynchota: Psyllidae) in the Caribbean Basin. Florida Entomologist 87(3), 401-402.
Isac V, Isac M, Mladin P (2004) Viruses occurrence in raspberry cultivars grown in Romania. Acta Horticulturae no. 656, 171-175.
Jankovský L, Haltofová P, Juhásová G, Kobza M, Adamčíková, K, Palovčíková D (2004) The first record of Chryphonectria parasitica in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycology 56(1/2), 45-51 (abst.).
Li BH, Xu XM, Li JT, Li BD (2005) Effects of temperature and continuous and interrupted wetness on the infection of pear leaves by conidia of Venturia nashicola. Plant Pathology 54(3), 357-363.
Ling KS, Simmons AM, Hassell RL, Keinath AP, Polston JE (2006) First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in South Carolina. Plant Disease 90(3), p 379.
Maafi ZT, Sturhan D, Ahmad Kheiri, Geraert E, Subbotin SA, Moens M (2004) Morphology of some cyst-forming nematodes from Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology 12(1), 59-77 (abst.).
Mullis SW, Csinos AS, Gitaitis D, Martinez-Ochoa N (2006) First report of Pinaceae in Georgia naturally infected with Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Plant Disease 90(3), p 376.
Pappu HR, Hellier BC, Dugan FM (2006) Wild Allium spp. as natural hosts of Iris yellow spot virus. Plant Disease 90(3), p 378.
Rajan, Arjun Lal (2005) On the non-occurrence of Ditylenchus dipsaci in India. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35(1), 37-41.
Souza, NS de (2004) [Occurrence of grape rust in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.]. Fitopatologia Brasileira 29(2), p 226 (abst.).
Tessmann DJ, Dianese JC, Genta W, Vida JB, May de Mio LL (2004) Grape rust caused by Phakopsora euvitis, a new disease for Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira 29(3), p 338 (abst.).
Uesugi CH, Freitas MA, Menezes JR (2003) [First occurrence of Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens on bean in the State of Goias and Federal District of Brazil.] Fitopatologia Brasileira 28(3), p 324 (abst.).
Vettraino AM, Hüberli D, Swain S, Bienapfl JC, Smith A, Garbelotto M (2006) First report of infection of maiden-hair-fern (Adiantum jordanii and A. aleuticum) by Phytophthora ramorum in California. Plant Disease 90(3), p 379.
Yorinori JT, Nunes Junior J, Lazzarotta JJ (2004) [Asiatic rust of soyabeans in Brazil: evolution, economic importance and control.] Documentos – Embrapa Soja no. 247, 63 pp (abst.).