Invasive species in Serbia and Montenegro: a threat for biodiversity
One of the most alarming examples of an invasive plant in Serbia and Montenegro is Ailanthus altissima which has started spreading from urban areas. It conquered the devastated areas along roads, and then spontaneously penetrated into natural canyon vegetation. Amorpha fruticosa, Asclepias syriaca, Echinocystis lobata and Solidago gigantea spread mostly along river courses, and sometimes completely suppress indigenous species or take over the dominant role. The following plants were also reported as invasive in Serbia and Montenegro by Vasic (pers. com. 2006): Acer negundo, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (EPPO List of Alien Invasive plants), Aster novi-belgii, Commelina communis, Cuscuta campestris, Helianthus tuberosus (EPPO List of Alien Invasive plants), Ipomoea purpurea, Medicago sativa, Morus alba, Parthenocissus inserta, Paspalum distichum, Reynoutria japonica (EPPO List of Invasive Alien plants), Robinia pseudoacacia, Solanum elaeagnifolium (EPPO List of Alien Invasive plants), and Sporobolus indicus.
According to Stevesic (2006), major weeds in Podgorica and its surroundings are: Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Conyza canadensis, C. bonariensis, Helianthemum tuberosum, Lepidium draba and Bidens subalternans.
Stevesic D (2006) Contribution to the knowledge on the invasive species in the flora of Montenegro. In: Invasive plants in Mediterranean Type Regions of the World (Ed. by S Brunel). Council of Europe publishing. Strasbourg. p. 322.
Vasic O (2006) Invasive adventive species in Serbia and Montenegro - a threatening factor for the natural diversity of flora and vegetation. In Invasive plants in Mediterranean Type Regions of the World. (Ed. by S Brunel).Council of Europe publishing. Strasbourg. p. 350.