Real-time PCR tests for flavescence dorée, bois noir and apple proliferation phytoplasmas
Real-time PCR assays were developed in Italy for the specific diagnosis of flavescence dorée (EPPO A2 list), bois noir and apple proliferation (EPPO A2 list) phytoplasmas, as well as for the universal detection of phytoplasmas belonging to 16Sr-V, 16Sr-X and 16Sr-XII groups. These methods could be used successfully to detect phytoplasmas in field samples of grapevine and apple, as well as in insect vectors (Scaphoideus titanus for flavescence dorée, Hyalestes obsoletus for bois noir and Cacopsylla melanoneura for apple proliferation). It was considered that real-time PCR assays are rapid and sensitive tools to detect phytoplasmas at the universal or group-specific level, which could be used both for fundamental studies (e.g. host-pathogen relationships, epidemiology) and routine testing.
Galetto L, Bosco D, Marzachi C (2005) Universal and group-specific real-time PCR diagnosis of flavescence dorée (16Sr-V), bois noir (16Sr-XII) and apple proliferation (16Sr-X) phytoplasmas from field-collected plant hosts and insect vectors. Annals of Applied Biology 147(2), 191-201.