First report of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina in Poland
In Poland, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) has been traditionally grown in gardens and small family orchards but recently its commercial production has become more widespread. In 2007, unusual symptoms were observed on different hazelnut cultivars grown in one orchard in Central Poland. In this orchard, the majority of 15-year-old trees showed angular necrotic lesions on leaves and involucres (husks), and twig cankers. In 2009, similar symptoms were observed in this orchard, as well as in a young hazelnut orchard located nearby where almost all trees (4-year-old trees, covering 1 ha) were affected. Bacterial colonies were consistently isolated from diseased trees and further analysis following the EPPO Standard PM7/22 confirmed the presence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina (EPPO A2 List). The pathogenicity of the Polish bacterial isolates was tested in glasshouse experiments and X. arboricola pv. corylina could be re-isolated from symptomatic tissues of inoculated plants, thus completing Koch’s postulates. This is the first time that X. arboricola pv. corylina has been detected in Poland. The authors noted that an extensive survey carried out in the early 2000s had not detected the bacterium in the Polish hazelnut plantations, which suggests that its introduction in Poland is recent.
The situation of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina in Poland can be described as: Present, first detected in 2007 in Central Poland, in a limited number of orchards.
Pulawska J, Kaluzna M, Kolodziejska A, Sobiczewski P (2010) Identification and characterization of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina causing bacterial blight of hazelnut: a new disease in Poland. Journal of Plant Pathology 92(3), 803-806.
EPPO (2004) EPPO Standards PM7/22. Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests: Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 34, 155–157. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/PM7_DIAGNOS/pm7-22(1).pdf