Aphid species recently reported as new introductions
The following aphid species have recently been reported in the literature as new introductions. The intention is not to present an exhaustive list but to give a few examples of introductions of aphid species into different parts of the world, especially as some of them are new for the EPPO region.
From 1985 to 2003, a survey on aphid species was done in Guadeloupe and in other Caribbean islands (Etienne, 2005). During this survey, 13 aphid species were reported for the first time including Aphis illinoisensis which is an American pest of Vitis vinifera. In the Caribbean, A. illinoisensis was found in: Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe. Interestingly, it has recently been reported in the EPPO region in Turkey and Greece. In June 2005, A. illinoisensis was recorded for the first time on the island of Kriti in all major viticultural areas. The pest was first found in several localities of Heraklion Prefecture and near the city of Khania (Khania prefecture) but within one growing season it was found throughout the island. These aphids feed on young shoots and leaves and in some cases on berries. A. illinoisensis was reported in September 2002 in southern Turkey (Tsitsipis et al., 2005).
During the survey done in Guadeloupe and other Caribbean islands (see above, Etienne, 2005), Cerataphis brasiliensis was also found. This species originates from South-East Asia and is a pest of palm trees. In the Caribbean, it was found in: Cuba, Guadeloupe (including la Désirade), Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad. Interestingly, C. brasiliensis has also been reported by the NPPO of France on palm trees which had been imported from Brazil (see EPPO 2004/152).
Illinoia liriodendri is a pest of Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree) of North American origin. Its presence is now reported in France (Rabasse et al., 2005). It was first collected in Nantes (Loire-Atlantique) in spring 1998, infesting large L. tulipifera along avenues and in public parks. In July 2001, I. liriodendri was reported from many localities in the South-West of France (Ariège, Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Tarn). It then continued to spread to different (and sometimes distant) parts of France (Alpes-Maritimes, Ille-et-Vilaine, Isère).
I. liriodendri has recently been found in Germany (see EPPO RS 2005/086), and is also reported as present in Italy (widespread in Lombardia and Piemonte) and the United Kingdom (found on a few trees).
In May 2006, the NPPO of Slovenia also reported the presence of I. liriodendri on its territory. The aphid was found in September 2004 on L. tulipifera trees in parks of Nova Gorica, close to the Italian border. So far, no other outbreak has been found. The origin of this infestation could not be clearly established, although it is likely that the pest has naturally spread from Italy. No official measures have been taken so far.
Illinoia morrisoni is also of North American origin (present in Colorado and California). It was observed for the first time in France on Cupressus arizonica at Pégomas (Alpes-Maritimes) in June 1995, and then in 1999 and 2001 at Pégomas and Mougins. Several alatae were caught by suction traps in Bretagne (Landerneau and Rennes), first in 1979 and again 10 years later. In Italy, few specimens of alatae of I. morrisoni were also caught by a suction trap at Pozzuolo del Friuli (province of Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia region). However, no aphids were caught on Cupressus in this area. In the United Kingdom, I. morrisoni has been observed in Kew Gardens on Sequoia sempervirens and later in a greenhouse in Surrey, on Cupressus macrocarpa and Taxodium distichum. So far, I. morrisoni has not been reported as a major pest of Cupressaceae nor of other coniferous plants (Rabasse et al., 2005).
Another American species, Siphonatrophia cupressi, was found for the first time in Europe at Mougins (Alpes-Maritimes, France), in May 1999 on Cupressus arizonica. The same species was also caught in a suction trap at Pozzuolo del Friuli in June 1999 and again in 2000, 2001 and 2002. But since then, the pest has not been trapped at this location. S. cupressi is a specific pest of Cupressaceae (Cupressus arizonica, C. guadelupensis, C. macrocarpa; Juniperus scopulorum, J. virginiana) in the USA (California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Utah) and Central America (Honduras, Mexico). In the South of France, S. cupressi parasitized by Lysiphlebus testaceipes have been observed (Rabasse et al., 2005).
Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae was first observed in Spain on a bonsai (Ulmus parvifolia) found in the city of León in December 2002, but originating from a nursery in Barcelona (Pérez Hidalgo and Nieto Nafría, 2005). T. ulmiparvifoliae is a pest of Asian origin (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan) and introductions have been reported from Australia, Italy, the United Kingdom, and USA (California and Florida). It is occasionally intercepted in Europe on bonsais from Asia.
Etienne J (2005) Les pucerons de Guadeloupe, des Grandes et Petites Antilles (Hemiptera, Aphididae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France 110(4/5), 455-462.
Pérez Hidalgo N, Nieto Nafría (2005) Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae Matsumura, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Calaphidinae): una nueva especie de pulgón introducida en la Península Ibérica. Boletin de la Asociación española de Entomología 29(1/2), 125-127.
Rabasse JM, Coceano PG, Barbagallo S (2005) On the presence in France and North Italy of Siphonatrophia cupressi (Homoptera, Aphididae), a new aphid of North American origin living on Cupressaceae. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, serie II 37(2), 77-83.
Rabasse JM, Drescher J, Chaubet B, Limonta L, Turpeau E, Barbagallo S (2005) On the presence in Europe of two Illinoia aphids of North American origin (Homoptera, Aphididae). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, serie II 37(3), 151-168.
Tsitsipis JA, Angelakis E, Margaritopoulos JT, Tsamandani K, Zarpas KD (2005) First record of the grapevine aphid Aphis illinoisensis in the island of Kriti, Greece. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, 541-542.
NPPO of Slovenia, 2006-06.