EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 01 - 2006 Num. article: 2006/018

Call for information on Solanum elaeagnifolium geographical distribution

The EPPO Secretariat and the Central Science Laboratory (York, UK) intend to make a bioclimatic prediction of the potential distribution of Solanum elaeagnifolium using CLIMEX. This analysis will provide elements in understanding which EPPO countries are at risk. CLIMEX relies on the hypothesis that climate is a key factor for the distribution of a plant. Detailed geographical distribution records concerning S. elaeagnifolium in all continents are therefore needed. At this stage of the project, the EPPO Secretariat is providing here the most detailed information it currently has together with literature or internet references. The EPPO Secretariat would be very grateful if you should provide additional records.

Naturalized range

  • EPPO Region

North Side of the Mediterranean Sea

S. elaeagnifolium has previously been recorded from the islet of Plavnik-Kvarner (coastal region) and from the village of Podspilje on the island of Vis. New localities have been found in the Šibenik region (Luka and Donje polje) (Pandza, 1999; Gazi Baskova et al., 1978; Pavletic et al., 1978). The plant has also been found in the County of Knin (Dalmatia) (Milovic, 2001; see also EPPO RS 2006/021).

The plant has been found in Chateauneuf-les-Martigues, near the ‘Etang de Berre’ (Bouches-du-Rhône) along a path and has been eradicated (Agence Méditerranéenne de l’Environnement, see also EPPO RS 2006/020). The plant is still present at Vic-la-Gardiole (Hérault) in ruderal habitats (S. Brunel, pers. com., 2006).

The plant is present, no detailed information (Boyd et al., 1984; Browicz, 1993; Eleftherohorinos et al., 1993).

The plant is present, no detailed information (Boyd et al., 1984).

Serbia and Montenegro
The plant is recorded in the Vojvodina area (Krstic et al., 2000).

It is recorded in the Comunidad Valenciana as spreading and having the potential to become an aggressive weed (Carretero, 1989). It was also recorded at 2 localities near Sevilla in Andalucía, (Aparicio, 2003; EPPO RS 2005/128). The plant was observed and managed in 2004 in Aragón in the surroundings of Zaragoza in ruderal habitats (Menendez et al., 2005; EPPO RS 2005/129).

South Side of the Mediterranean Sea

The plant is present in East Algeria (M. Fenni and D. Sarri, pers. com., 2005).

The plant is apparently widespread on the whole country (Database of the Jerusalem Botanical Garden).

The plant was recorded for the first time in 1949 in the surroundings of El Borouj (Province of Settat) and in Casablanca (Avenue Al Maârif). It was then recorded on the riverbanks of the Oum Rabiâ (Béni Amir and Béni Moussa). It has colonized the Tadla’s irrigated plains and the localities of Kesbet Tadla, Bzou, Afourer (Qorchi et al., 1997).

The plant was first detected in the governorate of Kairouan, around 1985, as it started to become troublesome in Sbikha (Chalgaf1, per. com.). S. elaeagnifolium is a noxious weed in Sbikha, where it is frequent and abundant in irrigated fields, along roadsides and riversides. It is sub-noxious in Chebika, since it is frequent but not very abundant. Several satellite populations were observed in Northern and Southern Kairouan, Cherarda and Hajeb el ayoun. The species was detected in the bordering governorates of Sousse, Mahdia, Sidi-Bouzid, Sfax and Zaghouan. (Mekki, 2006).

  • Africa

The plant is present, no detailed information (Boyd et al., 1984).

South Africa
The plant is present in all provinces (Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System website).

The plant is present, no detailed information (Holm et al., 1979).

  • Asia

The plant is present in Karnataka (Holm et al., 1979; Babu et al., 1995).

The plant is recorded in the North region (Al Mouemar, 2006).

  • North America

The plant is present in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii (Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project, 2006), Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington (USDA Plants Database, 2006).

  • Oceania

The plant is present in all states (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia) (Australian Virtual Herbarium, 2006; Australian Noxious Weed List, 2006).

Area of Origin

  • North America

The plant is present, no detailed information (Holm et al., 1979).

  • Central America and Caribbean

Puerto Rico
The plant is present, no detailed information (USDA Plants Database, 2006).

  • South America

The plant was recorded in 1971 in the Province of Santiago del Estero (Holm et al., 1979; Portal do gobierno do estado do Sao Paolo).

The plant is present, no detailed information (Holm et al., 1979).

The EPPO Secretariat is looking for hard copies of the references indicated in bold. If you have one of them, please contact hq@eppo.fr.

Agence Méditerranéenne de l’Environnement: www.ame-lr.org/plantes-envahissantes/solanum

Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System website
A distribution map of the plant with longitude and longitude is available at: www.agis.agric.za

Al Mouemar A (2006) La Morelle jaune (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.), une espèce envahissante des cultures cotonnières du Nord de la Syrie. In Brunel S (Ed.) (2006) Invasive plants in Mediterranean Type Regions of the World. Council of Europe publishing. Strasbourg. 430 p. In press.

Aparicio A (2003) Dos taxones naturalizados en la Peninsula Ibérica presentes en Andalucía Occidental. Acta Botanica Malacitana 28, 253.

Australian Noxious Weed List: http://www.weeds.org.au/noxious.htm

Australian Virtual Herbarium.
Longitudes and Latitudes are available at: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/cgi-bin/avhpublic/avh.cgi

Babu VS, Muniyappa TV, Shivakumar HR (1995) Studies on biology and herbicidal control of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). World Weeds, 2(2), 99-105.

Boyd JW, Murray DS, Tyrl RJ (1984) Silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium, origin, distribution and relation to man. Economic Botany, 38(2), 210-217; 41.

Browicz K (1993) Nicotiana glauca and Solanum elaeagnifolium (Solanaceae) - two xenophytes from South America and the history of their spreading in the eastern Mediterranean. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, (Supplement 2, 1), 299-305.

Carretero JL (1989) The alien weed flora of the Valencian community (Spain). Proceedings of the 4th EWRS symposium on weed problems in Mediterranean climates. Vol. 2. Problems of weed control in fruit, horticultural crops and rice, 113-124.

Eleftherohorinos IG, Bell CE, Kotoula-Syka E (1993) Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium) control with foliar herbicides. Weed Technology, 7(4), 808-811; 21.

Gazi Baskova V, Segulja N (1978) The appearance of dangerous weeds of the genus Solanum on the Kvarner Island of Plavnik. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 6(106-115), 55-59

Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project. Known distribution of S. elaeagnifolium in Hawaii:

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL (1979) A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.

The Jerusalem Botanical Garden Homepage: http://www.botanic.co.il

Krstic L, Pal B, Anackov G (2000) The distribution of Solanum L. species in Vojvodina. Pesticidi, 15(4), 271-286

Mekki M (2006) Potential threat of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. To the Tunisian fields. In Brunel S (Ed.) (2006) Invasive plants in Mediterranean Type Regions of the World. Council of Europe publishing. Strasbourg. 430 pp (in press).

Menéndez J, Bastida F, Fernández-Quintanilla C, Gonzáles JL, Recasens J, Royuela M, Verdu A, Zaragoza C (2005) Malherbologia Iberica y Magrebi : soluciones comunes a problemas comunes. Universidad de Huelva. Junta de Andalucía. X Congresso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbologia, 5-7 Octubre 2005.

Milovic M (2001) A contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of the County of Sibenik and Knin (Dalmatia, Croatia). Natura Croatica. 10(4), 277-292.

Pandza M, Stancic Z (1999) New localities of the species Datura innoxia Miller and Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae) in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 8(2), 117-124.

Pavletic Z, Devetak Z, Trinajstic I (1978) A new remarkable habitat of the neophyte Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. in flora of the Croatian coast. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 6(113), 69-72.

Portal do gobierno do estado do Sao Paolo:

Qorchi M, Taleb A (1997) Situation actuelle de l’infestation par la Morelle jaune au Maroc. Journée nationale sur la morelle jaune : ampleur du problème et stratégies de lutte, 19 juin 1997.

USDA-Plants Database. Map of the USA: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SOEL
Details are provided for California, Utah, Kansas, Arkansas, Illinois, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida.


EPPO Secretariat 2006-01.