EPPO Global Database

EPPO Reporting Service no. 09 - 2008 Num. article: 2008/190

Invasive alien plants from New Zealand


Increasingly, New Zealand native species are being introduced into other temperate regions of the world, and a significant proportion has already become invasive. Because trade from New Zealand has only occurred over the past 150 years, opportunities for the native species to establish in other biogeographic regions are relatively recent. The major driver for the export of New Zealand native plants is the horticultural industry, which has focused on interesting evergreen forms.
Those plant species native from New Zealand and considered invasive in some parts of the world are listed below. Each species has been checked against the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) in order to indicate its invasive behaviour elsewhere in the world, as well as in Flora Europaea and the DAISIE Database to determine its occurrence and invasiveness within the EPPO region. This later information remains only indicative, and “/” indicates that no further information could be found.

Species
Entry pathway
GCW*
Naturalization area
Distribution EPPO
Acaena novae-zelandiae (Rosaceae)
Contaminant
W, NW, EW
Eur., N-Am.
GB, IE
Cardamine corymbosa (Brassicaceae)
Contaminant
W, AW
Australia
GB
Carex albula (Cyperaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Australia
/
Carex flagellifera (Cyperaceae)
Horticulture
W, SW, NW
Australia
/
Carex testacea (Cyperaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Australia
/
Coprosma repens (Rubiaceae)
Horticulture
W, SW, EW
Australia Eur., N-Am., S-Af.
GB, Madeira (PT)
Coprosma robusta (Rubiaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Australia, Eur., N-Am.
/
Cordyline australis (Agavaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Pacific
FR, GB, IE
Cortaderia fluvida (= C. richardii) (Poaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Australia, Eur., N-Am.
FR, GB
Corynocarpus laevigatus (Corynocarpaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
N-Am., Australia, Pacific
/
Crassula helmsii (Crassulaceae)
EPPO A2 List
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Eur.
BE, DE, ES, FR, GB, IE, IT, NL
Crassula sieberiana (Crassulaceae)

Horticulture
W
N-Am.
/
Epilobium billardieranum (Onagraceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Australia, Eur., N-Am.
/
Epilobium nummularifolium (= E. brunnescens) (Onagraceae)
Horticulture
EW
Eur.
GB, IE
Epilobium komorovianum (Onagraceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB, SK
Epilobium rotundifolium (Onagraceae)
Horticulture
EW
Australia
/
Hebe barkeri (Scrophulariaceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB?
Hebe brachysiphon (Scrophulariaceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB
Hebe dieffenbachii (Scrophulariceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB
Hebe elliptica (Scrophulariceae)
Horticulture
EW
Australia
FR
Hebe parviflora (Scrophulariceae)
Horticulture
-
Australia
/
Hebe salicifolia (Scrophulariceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB, IE, Azores (PT)
Hebe speciosa (Scrophulariaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Australia, N-Am.
GB?, IE
Hoheria populnea (Malvaceae)
Horticulture
W
N-Am.
GB
Hydrocotyle tripartita (Apiaceae)
?
W
Australia
/
Leptospermum ericoides (Myrtaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Pacific
/
Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Pacific
GB, Azores, Madeira (PT)
Metrosideros excelsa (Myrtaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Australia, S-Af.
Azores, Madeira (PT)
Muehlenbeckia complexa (Polygonaceae)
?
W, EW
Australia
Baleares (ES), FR, GB, IE, PT (incl. Azores, Madeira)
Muehlenbeckia ephedroides (Polygonaceae)
?
-
Australia
/
Myoporum laetum (Myoporaceae)
Horticulture
W, NW, EW
Australia, N-Am.
ES, Corse (FR), PT
Myriophyllum propinquum (Haloragaceae)
?
W, EW
Australia
/
Olearia avicennifolia (Astercaeae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
/
Olearia traversii (Astercaeae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
IE
Phormium cookianum (Agavaceae)
Horticulture
-
Eur.
GB
Phormium tenax (Agavaceae)
Horticulture, Fiber industry
W, SW, EW
Australia, N-Am., Pacific
GB, IE, Azores (PT)
Pittosporum crassifolium (Pittosporaceae)
Horticulture
W, AW, EW
Australia
GB
Pittosporum eugenioides (Pittosporaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Australia
/
Solanum aviculare (Solanaceae)
Horticulture
W, EW
Australia, Caribbean, N-Am.
/
* Abbreviations for the Global Compendium of Weeds column:
“-“: no record of invasiveness; W: weed; SW: sleeper weed; NW: noxious weed; AW: agricultural weed; EW: environmental weed.

Some species are recorded in Europe by Yeates & Williams (2006), while no precise data could be found (e.g. Olearia avicennifolia). On the other hand, some species were not mentioned as present in Europe, while some specific occurrences could be found (e.g. Cardamine corymbosa). Additionally, many of the New Zealand species occur in Great Britain, highlighting commercial exchanges between these countries.


Sources

A Global Compendium of Weeds. http://www.hear.org/gcw/alpha_select_gcw.htm">http://www.hear.org/gcw/alpha_select_gcw.htm
Delivering Invasive Alien Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE) Database. http://www.europe-aliens.org/
Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM and Webb DA (1964/80) Flora Europeaea, Vol 1-5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (GB).
Yeates GW, Williams PA (2006) Export of Plant and Animal Species from an Insular Biota. Ecological Studies 186, 85-100.