New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Algeria. A specimen was found in October 2021 in the city centre of Skikda. The insect had been attracted at night by artificial light on the wall of a house. It is noted that H. halys had been observed before (in July 2021) in the same area of the city (van der Heyden et al., 2021).
In Iran, symptoms resembling those of tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV – EPPO A2 List) were first observed in August 2021 in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in a greenhouse in Isfahan province. The plants had been grown from imported seed. The identity of the virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. All plants were removed and destroyed (Ghorbani et al., 2021). Present, under eradication.
In Saudi Arabia, symptoms resembling those of tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tobamovirus, ToBRFV – EPPO A2 List) were first observed in January 2021 in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in several greenhouses in Riyadh region. The identity of the virus was confirmed by RT-PCR and partial nucleotide sequence. ToBRFV was identified in 25 out of 45 samples taken (Sabra et al., 2021). Present
- Detailed records
Citrus tristeza virus (Closterovirus, CTV – EPPO A2 List) is reported for the first time from Georgia (US). In autumn 2020, asymptomatic leaf samples were collected from 13 orange trees (Citrus sinensis) grafted on Poncirus trifoliata in an orchard in Tifton. Laboratory analysis (molecular and serological tests) confirmed the presence of CTV (mild strains) in 8 samples out of 13. It is noted that aphid vectors, such as A. gossypii and A. aurantii, are widely present in the state of Georgia (Ali et al., 2021).
In Ohio (US), Gymnosporangium yamadae (EPPO A1 List) was first found in August 2020 on crab apple trees (Malus spp.) in a research plot of the Secrest Arboretum in Wooster (Emanuel et al., 2021).
In India the potato apical leaf curl disease caused by tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) is becoming a major disease in potato production in several states: Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Hayana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal (Kumar et al., 2021).
Three molecular protocols using qPCR TaqMan probe, SYBR Green, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods have been developed for the identification of larvae and adults of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – EPPO A2 List) (Rizzo et al., 2021).
- Host plants
Phytophthora ramorum (EPPO A2 List) was recovered from symptomatic foliage of Vinca minor (periwinkle) in a botanical garden in Washington state (US). Pathogenicity of P. ramorum to V. minor was confirmed by completing Koch’s postulates (Elliot et al., 2021).
- New pests and taxonomy
For more than sixty years, the possible causes of chestnut mosaic disease remained unknown. Since the 1980s, this disease has been observed in chestnut commercial orchards in France and Italy. There were also records from Hungary and Japan. Past studies had shown that this disease was graft-transmissible, eliminated by thermotherapy and transmitted by aphids. Recent studies (HTS, phylogenetic analyses) have demonstrated that a new badnavirus, tentatively called Chestnut mosaic virus (ChMV) is associated with this disease. Although Koch’s postulates were not fully verified, experiments strongly suggest that ChMV is the causal agent of chestnut mosaic disease. The low diversity of ChMV isolates from France and Italy also indicates that this virus is of recent introduction in Europe (Marais et al., 2021).
Ali E, Bennett A, Stackhouse T, Walliullah S, Oliver JE (2021) First report of citrus tristeza virus infecting citrus trees in Georgia, USA. Plant Disease 105(7), p 2024. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0365-PDN
Elliott M, Rollins L, Bourret T, Chastagner G (2021) First report of leaf blight caused by Phytophthora ramorum on periwinkle (Vinca minor) in Washington State, USA. Plant Disease 105(7), p 2023. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1721-PDN
Emanuel IB, Ralston TI Chatfield RJ, Draper E, Veil J, Hand FD (2021) First report of Gymnosporangium yamadae causing Japanese apple rust on crabapple (Malus spp.) in Ohio. Plant Disease 105(7), p 2016. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2612-PDN
Ghorbani A, Rostami M, Seifi S, Izadpanah K (2021) First report of Tomato brown rugose fruit virus in greenhouse tomato in Iran. New Disease Report 44(2), e12040. https://doi.org/10.1002/ndr2.12040
Kumar R, Tiwari RK, Jeevalatha A, Siddappa S, Shah MA, Sharma S, Sagar V, Kumar M, Chakrabarti SK (2021) Potato apical leaf curl disease: current status and perspectives on a disease caused by tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 128, 897-911.
Marais A, Murolo S, Faure C, Brans Y, Larue C, Maclot F, Massart S, Chiumenti M, Minafra A, Romanazzi G, Lefebvre M, Barreneche T, Robin C, Petit RJ, Candresse T (2021) Sixty years from the first disease description, a novel badnavirus associated with chestnut mosaic disease. Phytopathology 111(6), 1051-1058.
Rizzo D, Da Lio D, Bartolini L, Cappellini G, Bruscoli T, Salemi C, Aronadio A, Del Nista D, Pennacchio F, Boersma N, Rossi E (2021) Development of three molecular diagnostic tools for the identification of the false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 114(4), 1796-1807.
Sabra A, Al Saleh MA, Alshahwan IM, Amer MA (2021) First report of tomato brown rugose fruit virus infecting tomato crop in Saudi Arabia. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-21-1065-PDN.
van der Heyden T, Saci A, Dioli P (2021) First record of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) in Algeria and its presence in North Africa (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Revista gaditana de Entomología XII(1), 147-154.