New data on quarantine pests and pests of the EPPO Alert List
By searching through the literature, the EPPO Secretariat has extracted the following new data concerning quarantine pests and pests included (or formerly included) on the EPPO Alert List, and indicated in bold the situation of the pest concerned using the terms of ISPM no. 8.
- New records
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae – EPPO A1 List) was first recorded in 2020. It was found during a study conducted on Solanum aethiopicum fruit collected in Kavimvira (Uvira territory). This fruit fly of Asian origin was first found in Africa in 2006 in Tanzania and in 2016 in Burundi. Further studies will be conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo to determine the geographical distribution and host range of B. latifrons (Ndayizeye & Kataraka Balangaliza, 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
In Spain, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (Crinivirus, CCYV) is reported for the first time. Symptoms of leaf chlorotic spots followed by interveinal chlorosis were observed during winter 2018 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) crops grown in 3 separate glasshouses in Southern Spain. In all cases, Bemisia tabaci was also observed in infected crops (Chynoweth et al., 2021).
In Bolivia, potato yellowing virus (Ilarvirus, PYV – EPPO A1 List) has been detected in yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) collected from 2 locations. This is the first time that PYV has been detected in this host (Silvestre et al., 2020). Present, not widely distributed.
In Armenia, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first observed in March 2020 in the Lodi province (Kalashian et al., 2021).
In Latvia, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae) was first observed in October 2020 in Salaspils. In 2021, 4 additional specimens were found in 3 other locations (Kolka, Virsīte and between Sīkrags and Mazirbe villages) (van der Heyden & Piterans, 2021).
In Algeria, Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) was observed for the first time in two commercial pomegranate (Punica granatum) orchards in 2018 in the North-East part of the country (Khaldi et al., 2021). Present, not widely distributed.
In Colombia, Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae – formerly EPPO Alert List) has been observed since 2001 and is now recorded from 9 departments (Bustca, 2021). Present.
- Detailed records
In Alabama (USA), cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Crinivirus, CYSDV - EPPO A2 List) and cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (Crinivirus, CCYV) were first found in 2020 in commercial fields of cucurbits in single or mixed infections (Mondal et al., 2021).
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (formerly EPPO Alert List) occurs in Florida (US). The disease was first observed in March and April 2017 in commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa) fields in the Everglade’s Agricultural Area. Affected lettuce plants showed chlorosis and wilting. Laboratory analysis (molecular and pathogenicity tests) confirmed the identity of the fungus (Murray et al., 2020).
In China, the cyst nematode Heterodera elachista (formerly EPPO Alert List) was first recorded from Gansu on maize (Zea mays) and Henan on rice (Oryza sativa). In Gansu, it was detected during a survey performed in fields of maize seed for propagation in September 2018 in Zhangye City, which is the biggest maize seed production area in China (Xu et al., 2021). In Henan, H. elachista was found in rice fields. Damage was much more serious in direct-seeded than in transplanted rice fields (Cui et al., 2021).
In July 2021, a population of Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae – EPPO A1 List) was identified in Indiana (US). It was observed near the Ohio River in Switzerland County. Surveys are being conducted to delimit the extent of the infestation and management strategies will be implemented. Members of the public are invited to report any sightings (IN.gov, 2021).
In China, the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola (EPPO Alert List) is reported for the first time from Anhui. It was isolated in April 2020 from an irrigated paddy rice (Oryza sativa) field in Qianshan City (Ju et al., 2021).
In Estonia, an outbreak of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Begomovirus, ToLCNDV – EPPO Alert List) was detected in 2019 in a fruit production site (2 glasshouses) where eradication measures were implemented (EPPO RS 2019/146). In July 2021, the NPPO of Estonia informed the EPPO Secretariat that this outbreak had been successfully eradicated (NPPO of Estonia, 2021-07).
The pest status of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Estonia is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
In Slovenia, an outbreak of the root mealybug Ripersiella hibisci (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae – EPPO A1 List) was detected in June 2021 (EPPO RS 2021/150). Official measures were taken and the outbreak is now considered to be eradicated (NPPO of Slovenia, 2021-08).
The pest status of Ripersiella hibisci in Slovenia is officially declared as: Absent, pest eradicated.
- Host plants
Four new palm species: Brahea edulis, Jubaea chilensis, Phoenix reclinata, and Sabal bermudana (all Arecaceae) are recorded for the first time as host plants of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – EPPO A1 List). In 2020-2021, mortality was observed on these 4 species in Balboa Park in California (San Diego county, US). In these affected palm species, adult weevils, pupal cocoons and larvae could be collected. In Balboa Park, it was also noted that Phoenix canariensis was the most highly attacked palm species, but no infestations were found on Phoenix dactylifera (Hoddle et al., 2021).
- New pests and taxonomy
In Central and Southern China, a new disease has been observed in commercial orchards of Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) since 2015. Affected trees showed small, semi-transparent chlorotic leaf spots on newly developed leaves, necrotic spots on stems and distorted leaves. Studies have showed that this emerging disease is associated with a new Emaravirus, tentatively called pear chlorotic leaf spot-associated emaravirus (PCLSaV) (Liu et al., 2020).
In South Africa, a new disease affecting Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) has been observed since the 2000s. Symptoms were characterized by a marbling pattern on the fruit skin or corking of fruit flesh, rendering Japanese plums unmarketable. High throughput sequencing has revealed the presence of a new viroid for which the name plum viroid I (PVd-I) was proposed. Field surveys carried out over two growing seasons confirmed its association with disease symptoms and the disease was also shown to be transmissible by grafting (Bester et al., 2020).
Bester R, Malan SS, Maree HJ (2020) A plum marbling conundrum: Identification of a new viroid associated with marbling and corky flesh in Japanese plums. Phytopathology 110(8), 1476-1482.
Bustca A (2021) Presencia de la especie invasora Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) en Medellín, Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 45(175), 508-515. https://doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.1324
Chynoweth R, Jimenez D, Liberti D, Bellon-Dona D, Carralero-González A, Crespo-Sempere A, Albiach-Marti MR (2021) First report of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting cucumber plants in Spain. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2553-PDN
Cui J, Zhou B, Jiao Y, Chen K, Ren H, Meng H, Li H, Jiang S (2021) First record of Heterodera elachista infecting rice in Henan Province of central China. Plant Disease 105(2), 511. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1293-PDN.
Hoddle MS, Johansen G, Kast E, Lopez AM, Shaw MM (2021) Four new palm species records for Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Florida Entomologist 104(2), 143-144. https://journals.flvc.org/flaent/article/view/127431/131061
IN.gov. Indiana Department of Natural Resources (2021-07) Spotted Lanternfly. https://www.in.gov/dnr/entomology/pests-of-concern/spotted-lanternfly/
Ju Y, Wu X, Tan G, Peng D, Xu J, Qiu K, Wu H (2021) First report of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice in Anhui province, China. Plant Disease 105(2), 512.
Kalashian MY, Ghrejyan TL, Karagyan GH (2021) [First finding of Western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heid. (Heteroptera, Coreidae) in Armenia]. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions no. 2, 52-55 (in Russian). http://www.sevin.ru/invasjour/issues/2021_2/Kalashian_21_2.pdf
Khaldi M, Barech G, Bendjedou H, Aouari I (2021) First detection and infestation levels of the invasive fruit fly Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in pomegranate orchards from Algeria. African Entomology 29(1), 173-179.
Liu H, Wang G, Yang Z, Wang Y, Shang Z, Li L, Waqas M, Hong N, Liu H, Wang G, Hong J, Zhang J, Xu L, Qi L (2020) Identification and characterization of a pear chlorotic leaf spot-associated virus, a novel Emaravirus associated with a severe disease of pear trees in China. Plant Disease 104(11), 2786-2798.
Mondal S, Jenkins Hladky LL, Melanson RA, Singh R, Sikora E, Wintermantel WM (2021) First report of cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in cucurbit crops in Alabama. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-21-0922-PDN
Murray J, Raid RN, Miller CF, Sandoya-Miranda G (2020) First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae causing vascular wilt of lettuce in Florida. Plant Disease 104(11), 3069-3070.
Ndayizeye L, Kataraka Balangaliza C (2021) First report of Bactrocera latifrons Hendel in the Democratic Republic of Congo. EPPO Bulletin 51(2), 311-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12746
NPPO of Estonia (2021-07).
NPPO of Slovenia (2021-08).
Silvestre R, Fuentes S, Risco R, Berrocal A, Adams I, Fox A, Cuellar W J, Kreuze J (2020) Characterization of distinct strains of an aphid-transmitted Ilarvirus (Fam. Bromoviridae) infecting different hosts from South America. Virus Research 282, 197944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197944
van der Heyden T, Piterans U (2021) First records of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Latvia. Heteroptera Poloniae – Acta Faunistica 15, 129-130. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5172913
Xu Z, Li H, Liu Y, Li W, Zhang S (2021) First report of cyst nematode (Heterodera elachista) on Zea mays in Gansu Province, China. Plant Disease 105(2), 511. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-20-0037-PDN